REAL JOURNALISM - POLITICAL ACTIVISM - LEGISLATIVE INTERVENTIONS - ONLINE FRAUD PREVENTION

Environmental Engineering and Science

PHA PRODUCTION FIELD

POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE (PHA) PRODUCTION FROM METHANE & NATURAL GAS - LITERATURE REVIEW PART 5

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Section 5: Applications and Economics of PHA(s)

With several improvements being made thus far to the production PHA(s), their applications can now be extended beyond everyday articles to the medical field, the fuel and agricultural industries. A detailed discussion of these applications is outlined below.

PHA Polyester

POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE (PHA) PRODUCTION FROM METHANE & NATURAL GAS - LITERATURE REVIEW PART 4

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Section 4: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs)

4.1 Introduction

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of natural-occurring polyesters synthesized by a wide variety of bacteria through the fermentation of sugars, alkanes, alkanoic acids and lipids. These polymers appear as discrete cytoplasmic insoluble granules inside the bacterial cell.

Methane Siberia

POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE (PHA) PRODUCTION FROM METHANE & NATURAL GAS - LITERATURE REVIEW PART 3

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Section 3: Methane-Consuming Organisms

Methane-oxidizing bacteria, also called methanotrophic bacteria, can fortunately consume methane gas in aerobic environments, hence decreasing their accumulation in the atmosphere. These organisms play a major role in the global carbon cycle and have the potential of contributing to the reduction of global methane emissions [38].

Biodegradable Plastics

POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE (PHA) PRODUCTION FROM METHANE & NATURAL GAS - LITERATURE REVIEW PART 2

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Section 2: Addressing the Plastic Problem

2.1​ The Promise: Biodegradable Plastics

With increasing oil prices, current concerns about depleting oil reserves and the ongoing push for implementing renewable energy systems, there is a sense of urgency for intensive research to address the synthetic plastic problem. Biodegradable polymers present great promise as an alternative to synthetic polymers.

Plastics Pollution

POLYHYDROXYALKANOATE (PHA) PRODUCTION FROM METHANE & NATURAL GAS - LITERATURE REVIEW PART 1

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Section 1: The Plastic Problem

1.1 The History of Plastics

In the past century, plastics have saturated our world and changed the course of our lives. Plastics (or polymers) in general are organic materials that are malleable and can be molded into different shapes. The arrival of synthetic plastics was a valuable discovery that opened doors for producers to create limitless new products and presented a breakthrough from the material constraints of the natural world. Fig. 1 highlights some key milestones in this revolutionary discovery [1] [2] [3] [4].