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Neuromarketing Brain Research Methods

In neuromarketing research, brain scientists use medical technologies that are otherwise applied in a variety of diagnostic procedures. According to (Zurawicki, 2010, 43, 44), magnetic resonance (MRI) in neuromarketing has proven to be a safer and more precise method than X-ray, also because it is not only limited to brain analysis. Images are obtained using a combination of a strong magnetic field and radio waves. Their interaction creates weak radio signals, yet reflect the intimate details of the brain structure. During the examination, the patient lies on a bed with a head surrounded by a giant magnet that causes the atom particles - protons - to coincide with the magnetic field inside the brain.

Consequently, a group of radio waves is sent to the brain of the patient.  A portion of that energy is absorbed by the protons, bringing them out of balance. Protons are gradually moved and emit radio waves. These waves are received by the monitoring device and sent to a computer that produces the resulting brain image. For the reason that different parts of the brain emit slightly different radio signals depending, amongst other factors, on local water and fat content, the computer is able to distinguish one brain structure from another. Once, to some extent more effective, the MRI variation is a "diffusion tensor" (DT) that tracks the movement of water molecules along the cell membrane (for example, brain axons). DT-MRI scanning generates much more data than ordinary MRI and allows different crosses of tracked structures.

Furthermore, according to Zurawicki (2010, 44–46), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the product and continuation of MRI. Its concept is based on a conventional MRI scanner but takes into account two other facts. First, the blood contains iron, which is part of the haemoglobin that carries oxygen in the red blood cells. Iron atoms that are not bound to oxygen, deoxyhemoglobin, produce little disruption around their magnetic field. The second essential fact behind fMRI is the physiological principle, which whenever a part of the brain becomes active, the small blood vessels in that localized region spread and more blood flows to that location. Thus, blood is also needed to provide additional oxygen and fuel (glucose) for active brain cells. If there is an ample supply of freshly oxygenated blood to the activated part of the brain, the amount of deoxyhemoglobin is reduced. This, in turn, creates a small change in the magnetic field in the active zone. The fMRI scanner can detect this change and highlight activated brain regions. For example,  a patient when exposed to a flash of light, the visual cortex of the brain is activated. It stimulates an increase in blood flow in the area, resulting in a change in the MRI signal. On the computer screen, it appears in colour versus the brain contrasted in conventional grayscale. The signal is often called a "BOLD" signal, an acronym for "Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Signal", a signal that is derived depends on the level of oxygenation in the area.

fMRI examines the entire brain in specific tests while exposed to stimuli when searching for active zones. A series of scans are taken every 2–5 seconds and the results are mapped in particular areas. The final output shows different parts of the brain in the individual layers and observes the inflow of blood into those examined areas where the interest of the subject is evoked. Research using MRI and fMRI allows penetrating more profound than just the surface of the brain structure. Therefore, the use of MRI and fMRI has contributed to numerous significant findings concerning the subcortical area. An essential advantage of fMRI is that it allows for almost continuous monitoring of the brain activity of the subjects being examined while they perform different tasks. The results obtained can be compared with the examination of a person who is in a calm state.

Another technology relevant to neuromarketing research is the electroencephalogram (EEG), whose first use is the diagnosis of central nervous system activity. Signals are transmitted between neurons by changes in electrical voltage. These changes are recorded by the electrodes located on the head surface of the person being examined. Electric potentials arise from brain activity. Each part of the brain tells and responds differently to certain stimuli. How is EEG used in the practice of neuromarketing? EEG is easy to perform from any location. It allows researchers to measure the response of a subject in a selected environment, whether it is a cinema, department store or a 30-second commercial spot in a break between thirds of a hockey match. Changes in the electrical activity of the brain can be interpreted to see if the subject is experiencing emotional reactions or simply not paying attention. Compare the results of the EEG with the standard questionnaire. The consumer, when asked if he liked the 30-second advertising spot, will answer yes, but we can learn more from the EEG. The EEG may reveal that the same consumer was closely involved for the first ten seconds, lost interest in the next ten seconds, and reacted significantly again in the last ten seconds. The questionnaire only answers 'yes' because it is a summary of his impression of a particular spot. Therefore a question arises, what is the lesson for such marketing communication in terms of neuromarketing research? Focus on the middle ten seconds to create a communication that will act on the viewer.

Eye Tracking means tracking eye movement and is a useful way to analyze behaviour and cognition. The device is focused on the right direction and target of the eye view (point of interest), as well as on the pupil's extension and head movement. Various techniques for measuring eye movement are used, so far, the most used techniques with a video recording of the viewer are the stimulus. (Zurawicki, 2010, 51). The more demanding device also automatically monitors the head position in three-dimensional relation to the camera. The method of eye-tracking by tracking micro movements may indicate focus, the point at which the eye will remain for a while, and may differentiate different types of behaviour. The output of this research is that maps are so-called heatmaps. The points the user looks at for the longest are usually highlighted in red or dots if the point sequence is specific.

Neuromarketing Brain Research IKEA

Picture no. 1 Sample of Eye Tracking method - sequence of points

Source: LUU, Antoine. IKEA eye-tracking at


According to Zurawicki (2010, 51), eye movement can be divided into two categories: fixation and oscillation. Fixing occurs when the eye movement stops at a particular position; oscillation is a quick switch to another point. The fixation ranges from about 200 ms when reading a text to 350 ms while the scene is displayed and moving the view (oscillation) to the new destination takes about 200 ms. The resulting series of fixations and oscillations is called a map. These maps are used to analyze visual perception, cognitive intent and interests and deflections. Besides, some elements of eye movement examination, such as pupil extension, are believed to provide more accurate levels of interest than similar measurements of galvanic skin resistance. Pupil expansion and quick blinking of the eye also affect the overall image processing. However, none of these reactions provides a positive or negative perception of the subject of interest. The limitations of this methodology are common to biometric approaches. Biometric methods show what stimuli the user responds to, how they feel, at what moments his cognitive brain activity affects back-up information, and on what responses he responds to in contact with external stimuli. They are, therefore, one of the ways to more in-depth knowledge and anticipation of consumer behaviour. For example, compared to questionnaires and their real value, biometric tests, assuming correct interpretation, can be much more accurate as they eliminate distortions arising from customer conscious declarations affected by ego's ego. In other words, what a customer feels and acts do not have to correspond to what he realizes and what he confesses in polling-based surveys.


The Eye Tracking method is used for both online and offline advertising and generally focuses on ranking layouts - website or department store layout, navigation and visuals overall, ad layouts, whether on a website or at a specific point of sale. Using this method, we can also evaluate the appearance of promotional materials from web presentations to print material or packaging design. When it comes to evaluation at the point of sale, we examine the impact of sales tools such as shelves and goods placement, merchandise display and additional graphical presentations.


Given the advantages and disadvantages of the neuromarketing research methods mentioned above, combining at least some of them may, depending on the nature of the task, produce better results than when only one method is applied. If according to Zurawicki (2010, 53), several methods are carried out simultaneously, this leads to measurement efficiency.


2.2 Ethics Of Neuromarketing Application

It is clear there is a sensitive issue when it comes to neuromarketing, that is its ethical character. The responses that come as associations in protecting consumers' rights using imaging techniques and other tools of the same nature to investigate buyer behaviour have not taken too long. Iorga and Pop (2012, p. 641) argue that neuromarketing techniques can undoubtedly be manipulative. However, we need to clarify the importance of this manipulation. Manipulation is defined as a decision based on the psychological influence of a group of people, communities, a crowd of people to act against their interests and thus presented as a means of convincingly inducing someone else's interests. It is necessary to discuss the positive or negative sign of manipulation. The customer in question can at least partially clarify the positive or negative sense of manipulation.


Neuromarketing Brain Research Illustration


If we look at the issue of ethics in the example of a book or film that aims to expand its audience, neuromarketing techniques encourage the human brain to stimulate reading, monitoring, or hearing. Cognitive ergonomics (Georges and Badoc, 2010, p. 32) and experts in the field can create a favourable environment for the human brain to be fully trained. Among the rules for manipulating the human brain of the reader or viewer (Georges and Badoc, 2010, p. 201):


  • affect the fear of the reader or viewer
  • managing the order of information provided to the viewer or reader and obtaining information
  • in front of the character, first knowing something that still has to figure the character
  • influence the memory of the reader or viewer so that the story does not end before acceptance
  • elements of the future sequence
  • influence reader or viewer decisions


Neuromarketing research methods positively affect the human brain and seek to build both buyer and consumer loyalty, but in a new way to engage the other to become a research partner. In order to better understand the potential ethical dilemmas that can be derived from the use of neuromarketing research and the consequences of these ethical decisions, it is necessary to understand the cases where the dilemma is apparent. According to Flores, Baruca and Saldivara (2014), some critics claim that the consumer's free, logical and informed decisions are threatened. The corner-stone of neuromarketing research is trying to uncover the subjects' personality, which is a private matter. Other scientists Genco, Pohlmann and Steidl (2013) report the basic elements we look at in this issue:


  • Protection of research entities
  • Protecting the population of vulnerable specialists from marketing use
  • Full disclosure of objectives, risks and benefits
  • Specifically used media marketing representations


3. Psychological Aspects Of Neuromarketing




3.1 How consumer emotions and moods affect buying behaviour

Let us assume that people do not make rational decisions. For example, František Koukolík, a Czech scientist in the field of neuropathology, suggests that a man behaves irrationally and is subject to suggestions because he is influenced by an amount of information that can only be constructs of the human mind and evidenced that emotions take precedence over rational thinking while shopping. Rational thinking about the price or benefits of a particular product is a mere illusion of the human mind. American neurologist Antonio Damasio adds that the original trigger, the reason we choose to buy a product, is an unconscious emotion. Even unconscious emotions manifest themselves in the human body in some way, and the medical technologies of neuromarketing research can recognize and measure these manifestations. The emotional side is significant for events that have a robust, effective part. According to Damasia, there are two types of linking emotions and memory:


 1. People remember certain emotions associated with particular circumstances. Sometimes emotions are more memorable than the events themselves - for example, if we are uncomfortable with no apparent cause. It means that people create simple automatic affective responses that can drive fast responses when fully developed, conscious and familiar emotional responses (along with physiological manifestations) occur. It also suggests that the processing of emotional information and conscious emotional experience can take place in different parts of the brain (Winkielman et al., 2007).

2. Emotions illustrate and at the same time, strengthen the perceptions and memories of the outside world.


In a sense, both aspects complement each other. Emotional memories evoke a strong unconscious physiological response. Damasio (Damasio, 1996) hypothesized that a combination of physical affective states that can be stored in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during the event and maybe physiologically revived in the future when similar circumstances are detected.


Also, dramatic events connect different areas of the brain compared to ordinary memories. The interaction between amygdala in the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex increases the memory-emotion connection, and amygdala retains a substantial part of emotional memory. As a result of the significant relationship between emotional activity and memory, memory is greatly enhanced (Dolcos et al., 2004). It is even possible that some regions in the middle temporal lobe are specialized for differentiation of neutral vs emotional information.


The difference between a rational and emotional style of customer behaviour has a long tradition as a division into two appropriate theories — many studies on the relative importance of enjoyment vs product performance. Okada (2005) suggested that buying "entertainment products" often requires strong justification to overcome the potential onset of guilt. In a series of lab experiments, entertainment electronics (such as DVD players) have gained higher values of these feelings than the separately presented utility items (kitchen electronics). If the customer is faced with the "either-that-or-that" utilitarian alternative, i.e. more practical, then it is more likely that the customer chooses for its benefits.


Interest in justifying purchase has different impacts on the purchasing strategy of both categories. According to Zurawicki (2010), if the customer has the benefit of the purchased item, there is a higher likelihood of getting the consumer to spend more time looking for the best solution (Okada 2005). Sellers also offer convenient product packages. According to this model, on the one hand, the package includes functional elements, appealing to measurable and easily verifiable and, on the other hand, attributes that are pleasure-oriented. In this context, some hypotheses suggest that a functional type of purchase produces a sense of satisfaction and a sense of pleasure comes into being at a hedonistic purchase (Chitturi et al., 2008).


 Based on surveys and observations, market researchers have tried to find out which items are being bought more reliant on consumer emotional attitudes, as opposed to adopting a logical, rational attitude (Chaudhuri, 2006). Not surprisingly, art objects are made based on emotions, but, interestingly, the same is valid for buying a family home - which is the most expensive item they buy in their lives (Ben-Shahar, 2007).


Neuromarketing offers a new perspective on this issue. Appealing is the use of brain imaging techniques to assess the degree of positive emotions induced by product feel. Since "satisfaction" and "pleasure" can be in the same plane as the transition from tranquillity to ecstasy, the difference between these two results could neurologically be interpreted as the distance between less and more intense manifestations of the same kind of emotion. Besides, the technical difference between enjoyment and utility may prove less significant. Possibility of moving from one category to another is potentially more common than it might seem. For example, a beneficial braking system and fast acceleration are not only performance measures but also a source of driver feelings about driving control and even safety.


 Another important aspect is the heterogeneous impression of the consumer in evaluating the tangible element of product functionality, as opposed to evaluating the product's ability to bring joy. The urge to buy a valuable product or service works in the opposite direction to procrastination to buy, resulting from the need to justify perceived luxury. Emotional as opposed to a rational evaluation of what to buy and use is not only a function of those products but is also driven by personality traits. Consequently, different individual character traits likely tend to one or the other type, regardless of the nature of the product to buy.


The terms mood and emotion are sometimes confused, but they do not mean the same thing. Moods are transient states not bound to a particular event or object and last longer and less intense than emotions. They are also part of the influences that have the disposition to change the consumer's opinion and mood on a particular service or product.


People often say, "I am not in my skin today ..." The important thing is that people are aware of their changing mood, though they do not always know the cause. For ease of interest, it is reasonable to assume that most average individuals have a "normal" mood. In terms of environmental change, mood swings are the rule rather than the exception. Suppose a consumer just bought a new ski gear. One may expect the mood to be positive and willing to go downhill to test the equipment. Also, if the skis are delivered on time, there is a possibility that the consumer will want to try their new skis and enjoy the ski slope. What if his impression of the new equipment was negative? Would there be less likely that consumers would buy a full season skiing ticket?


Finally, in extreme but not so rare cases, the mood concept helps to understand why people act against their interests, including buying and consuming different products or services, knowing that what they do is not beneficial.


According to Zurawicki (2010, 92), moods are influenced by the weather, the changing seasons, the foods we eat, the amount of sleep, physical exertion, the interaction with other people, and many other aspects of everyday life. These factors are crucial for marketing managers. The extensive literature on the influence of the business environment (in the shop or on the internet) for the duration of the store visit provides evidence of how pleasant the smell, the kind of background music, the arrangement of the arrangement and the decoration positively affects the tendency to spend money. Given what is known about the friendliness of various sensory experiences (as described above in this chapter), it is not surprising that traders and behavioural research pay attention to these issues. A large number of publications also address the link between the in-store components and the online environment, which deserves a separate chapter.


It is necessary to emphasize the less explored but interesting idea of the role of physical restraint of the consumer in exposing a wide choice between goods in a shop. Interpreted and recently confirmed by Levav and Zhu (2009), as a defensive response in an attempt to gain personal freedom, it refers to the spatial restriction or crowd pushing in the shop how a chain of nerve events leads to greater comfort through the need for diverse shopping habits. On the one hand, fear and anger, as claustrophobic reactions play a role. On the other hand, these phenomena seem to contribute to indecision.




3.2 Brand, Branding And Its Sense In Neuromarketing

The brand includes a name, logo, slogan, design and overall identity, and at the same time, how customers perceive services and products, or what kind of brand they have. A brand that wants to become a brand should have some meaning, credibility and memorability. Consumers create specific associations and expectations with the brand, and neuromarketing focuses on this.


In his publication Unconscious Branding, Douglas Praet (2012, p. 48) mentions mirror neurons and points out the discovery of Professor Rizzolatti, who, with his team of scientists, has mirrored neuronal neurons for the first time in monkeys of kind Macac Nemestrina tested on active neurons while given food. When one of the scientists entered a room with a cone of ice cream in his hand, increased brain activity was recorded in places that corresponded to the control of hand movement. Thus, nerve activity was recorded in places as if the monkey itself held that cone in hand. What does this finding contribute to and what connection does it have with the brand? The discovery of the concept of mirror neurons points to the fact that we can empathize with others, understand their intentions, or have the ability to empathize. Reflecting the observed events from the perspective of neuromarketing means that I can feel lucky to buy a new mobile because a friend bought it a week ago and is happy with it. Only the idea of a particular brand can simulate beliefs in the brain and be a "gateway to happiness" in the transcribed sense, which may prove why some brands are memorable and vice versa. What is the similarity of religion and loyalty or "worship" of the brand? They have common pillars such as a sense of belonging, vision or thought, power over enemies, action on the senses, storytelling, symbols, rituals, spreading the faith.


4. Practical use of Neuromarketing


Pradeep (2010) in the book mentioned above, gives much information about the brain, and also about the EEG method at the point of sale, which helps to understand the consumer's purchasing decision. For example, we learn that the consumer's brain is delighted with the novelty, does not like straight lines and sharp angles, and prefers natural textures to artificial ones. According to this statement, traders, designers and professionals who plan to deploy a business can use neuromarketing knowledge to develop a competitive advantage and brand. This department store group can thus create a business space with a new design, innovative merchandise display, good lighting, underscoring music, emphasizing curves, avoiding sharp lines.


As Pradeep (2010) says - the visual elements at the point of sale have the most significant influence on customers, as almost all of the five human senses are used by almost 70%, and we naturally ranked first in the hierarchy. However, sight takes place in the brain, which makes sense for all colours, shapes, facial expressions and environments. Concerning the use of neuromarketing knowledge in this regard in the sales area, Pradeep's "cathedral effect" theory (2010, p. 45), which says that if we enter the cathedral, intuitively our eyes are heading towards its ceiling. Therefore, when placing essential information for us, we place it in a natural place for the customer - that is, the top part.


However, how does the customer move and feel in the sales area? Praet (2010, p. 171) controversially compares the state of the human brain when buying in a shop to a situation 100,000 years ago, when certain areas of the brain react in a similar way as when our ancestors felt threatened. According to him, a sharp end of a supermarket shelf can cause the same threat in practice. Although it seems funny to today's world, it can be perceived as a potential danger at the level of processes in the brain. Subconsciously, this fact is evaluated by the brain as a threat. The customer, therefore, may tend to leave this situation as soon as possible. The brain is focused, for a thousand years of evolution to protect itself from the dangers around it. The sharp corner of the street or the kitchen represents the same threat, the brain reacts instantly and avoids it subconsciously. What other circumstances does the customer have when moving between shelves in a store? Summary research results described in Buying Brain (Praet, 2010, p. 173) describe the so-called customer experience framework that determines and compares the quality of shopping experiences in the retail environment. Studies across different categories and retailers have revealed standard features that are integrated into this framework to analyze purchasing experience. This framework consists of seven points that cover the entire purchasing process. EEG and other neuromarketing methods were used in the measurement.


These frameworks are born from the analysis of thousands of brands, products, designs, pricing mechanisms, packages, Point-of-Sale (POS) elements in-store, web, TV commercials, print ads, Internet advertising and more.


Customer Experience Frameworks

1. Information

Customer must find relevant product or service information. The information is closely linked to the product's availability, an essential benchmark in evaluation. In this regard, attention, memory, awareness is explored. It is useful for measuring deep subconsciousness in response to the following major categories: find-ability, ease, discovery and pleasure.


2. Environment

This framework relates to the physical context of the shopping experience. It contains more senses and provides many opportunities to set the consumer in the right mood, purchase motivation and introduce products that touch their current life situation. These include attention, emotion, memory, the intention of purchase, and novelty. As the Praet (2010) study suggests, an environment that mimics the consumer's natural environment, it encourages him to try out the product and possibly create an intention to purchase the product, as opposed to a non-customized environment. Various display techniques serve different purposes in different locations in the store. The end of the shopping aisle is first of all attentive, while the presentation of new products is more likely to arouse interest if they are displayed at the entrance of the department store.


3. Entertainment

Nowadays, fun while shopping is seen as an advantage of modern times. The combination of shopping, which more or less compares the brain to hunting or gathering food, and entertainment is compelling. That is why shopping has become a modern family hobby. Thus, shopping is often similar to taking on a mixture of numbers and words for the subconscious. This amount of information can be effectively navigated through emotional stimuli that guide shoppers through entertainment. Entertainment provides emotional relief, minimizes the pain of buying and increases overall shopping time.


4. Education

Emphasizing the product's educational value, or information that explains something to the consumer is handled differently in the brain than purely entertaining displays. Facts and educational value displays are more rationally processed by the brain, making customers more likely to buy a product from a logical perspective. Consumers are more involved in price comparisons than when they are exposed without this intention.


5. Simplicity

Simplicity improves the shopping experience. Whether it is the primary purpose of a product or service in the first place, finding more information, making purchasing experience more efficient, transporting goods to the house or opening the package, simplicity must be an essential element of the consumer experience.


6. Social value

Social value is based on the experience in which customers, post-purchase, have a good feeling because they can contribute. Our brains are tightly connected to balance our individual and group needs. Personal value and social value helps us cope with spending money. Purchases where a percentage of the total amount is donated, for example, to charity, with a choice for the customer, increase the sense of social value. In one study, Praet (2010, p. 179) tested the effect of buying with a donation for the charity at the point of purchase. Consumers were asked to choose one of the four kinds of charities that they thought would deserve a percentage of the total purchase. He found that this simple gesture led to an increase in emotional engagement, as well as a much higher value of responses to stimuli in the deep subconscious for words about "pleasure" or "satisfaction" associated with shopping.


7. Company

People have a need to belong. It can be a reading club, a club of people who like to travel, or a group of people who are loyal customers of a particular brand. Whatever it is, people need to be part of a community. As far as hunters and gatherers are concerned, the community has helped ensure basic survival. As we have developed, the conscious and subconscious benefits of the community have become less evident, but still highly valued, and therefore consistently sought after: friendship, personal fulfilment, everyday cultural experiences, etcetera. Similarly, it is so with brand evoking a feeling of belonging to a community.


Customer Flow


4.1 Neuromarketing and Customer Flow

To be successful, a company needs to know its customers. It goes hand in hand with understanding the department store layout or customer flow information. As customers move and shop at the shopping mall, the customer flow can be monitored. The issue can be a useful tool for the actual discovery of the current situation or a tool that will help the department store understand the customer's preferences concerning what they see, which paths they move, and which media will attract them. Customer flow analysis delivers materials to learn how to improve the store's conditions and media to the consumer's enjoyment. The customer flow process ensures a wide range of aspects that the customer encounters: arrival, stay at the store and in the post-paid areas, as well as customer service. These are three important places for the customer and thus for companies and brands. Every company has different goals; not all help customer flow want to increase sales.

Customer Flow Optimization Benefits

  • Improved the shopping experience in the store
  • Optimized staff efficiency (quantity, shifts)
  • Increased sales


Product promotion will be most successful in areas with high store traffic. For example, placing a valuable item on busy locations and more in demand at less frequented store locations at the back of the store. That will guide the customer to go through the entire store.


Department store layout means how it is loaded with the sales area and where the goods are located within it. A department store affects the customer's buying behaviour and, if the sales area is adequately organized, it helps to prosper. Customer flow records the number of customers, their buying behaviour and habits.


If we find the customer's real needs, we can adjust accordingly to the layout of the store, department, or issue of the goods. Detailed analysis of the current situation - namely the current state of customer flow, the position of the entrance, the exit, the waiting room, the reception, the main sales area, how the goods are exposed (price tags, positions). New designs are not just about what they look like, but how they are designed for a natural shopping trip. The customer remembers not only how the shop looks, but we also learned that they primarily remember how they felt in the shop. When the brain adapts to the pattern of business, its sense of simplicity is disrupted by the new arrangement, when something appears in the store that does not correspond to the overall environment, it requires energy and extra resources for the human brain.


Customers need a moment to navigate and adjust to the store environment, so it is not advisable to display all promotional information right at the entrance (for example, the current action goods), instead it is essential to focus on appropriate customer navigation, the larger the department store, the more emphasis just on orientation.


For example, where does one place action goods or products? The direction of traffic at the store affects how successful promotional activities and product placement are. The traffic analysis of each department will show places that are more interesting and less visited or neglected (hot spot and cold spot are used for this). As the name suggests, products or information placed on hot spots tends to be more successful than those in places that do not have the same level of traffic.


How can such information be used to improve the appearance of a department store and increase sales? The necessary information includes the following information, which I drew from practice from a position that affects the appearance of the department store. Most people use the right hand to write. When people enter the store, they are likely to turn right. Note that we often encounter a type of store that supports a counterclockwise path. As far as the aisle width is concerned, narrow aisles promote curiosity and impulsive purchasing, while more full shopping aisles promote calm transport of what destination. However, if many customers suddenly appear in the narrow aisle, the journey can become impassable, and the customer tends to leave the store as soon as possible. It is essential to find a balance that matches the available space.


There are several ways in which a store can track its customer flow, for example, by using a sequence of frames at set intervals and recording changes that occur over time, using cameras, observing, or analyzing purchase data. Using these methods, we get information about the number of visitors, trendy areas and vice versa, as well as the different types of customer behaviour.


In general, there are four types of store layout: lattice, loop, tree, and free layout. The grid layout has counters and shelves in long rows all over the store, forcing shoppers to go up and down different aisles. This arrangement is typical for grocery stores. The loop has one main shopping route that leads the customer through one main route; the customer returns to the entrance with the loop. The layout of the tree has one central aisle that runs from the front of the store to the rear with individual compartments on the sides. Freely distributed stores are ideal for smaller businesses and impulse purchases. The goods are loosely grouped around the store. The focus is on the open air and letting the customer navigate between seemingly randomly placed products, although every detail is still carefully planned.


Neuromarketing Thesis Conclusion

Much has been said about marketing, while neuromarketing is still considered to be a new industry perspective dealing with customer needs and needs. This type of market research activity, which draws on scientific knowledge such as neurology and psychology, helps brands, create new designs, pricing mechanisms, product sales in the shop, website presentation services, television and print advertising, and other forms of brand promotion. Consumers create individual associations and expectations with the brand. Neuromarketing focuses on this.


One significant finding of the theoretical part of this bachelor thesis is the finding of Harvard professor of psychology Timothy Wilson (2002) that 99.9% of the information is processed subconsciously from all the stimuli that affect us. Together with information on the development of the brain, knowledge of psychology about unconsciously or consciously processed emotions and feelings when shopping and introducing into neurological research technologies, the content of the theoretical part of this work.


The practical part of this work is devoted to the analysis of a department store, which serves as a commercial tool for sales management. This part describes the observation of the shopping behaviour of customers, a sample of customers divided into three groups (individual, couple, family) over the course of fourteen days. The observation provided valuable information about which entrances of the department store are most used or whether abbreviations are used in the store. The separately examined fact was how strategically placed products act on customers. The key findings were that families spent the most time in the department store on the first floor of the store. On the ground floor of the department store, couples bought the longest. Also, on the ground floor of the department store, the observation was the most often visited floor, and the traffic analysis demonstrated interest related to specific products.


The last part of this thesis is a separate supplement - a leaflet called 'neuro-map', which shows essential information about neuromarketing and summarizes key information from this bachelor thesis, unfortunately, it is proprietary and cannot be shared.


To conclude, neuromarketing has the potential to be an increasingly used method of marketing communication in the future, thanks to its collaboration with neuroscience and advanced technologies that are continually evolving, and together they have the prerequisite to bring more quality information.