PRETTY GOOD POST - MAKES JOURNALISM GREAT AGAIN https://prettygoodpost.org/academic-archive en MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NATURAL GAS - EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE COMPETING SUBSTRATES - PART 1 https://prettygoodpost.org/microbial-degradation-natural-gas <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NATURAL GAS - EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE COMPETING SUBSTRATES - PART 1</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/wakuna-galega" lang="" about="/wakuna-galega" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">Wakuna Galega</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 11/17/2019 - 12:57</span> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/E7709466-CE76-45B8-AF84-172B9C20B3C4.jpeg" width="1280" height="960" alt="Natural Gas" title="Natural Gas" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Section 1: Proposal Summary</h2> <h2><b>Natural Gas Background</b></h2> <p>The role of natural gas in the emerging economy is currently a matter of great debate. Advances in technologies for extraction and recovery of natural gas from subsurface deposits have drawn attention to this resource as prices have fallen noticeably. Of greater significance from an environmental perspective is the fact that natural gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel with a significantly lower carbon footprint compared to other fossil fuels. This is because complete combustion of one mole of methane – the major component of natural gas – yields one molecule of CO<sub>2</sub>, whereas complete combustion of longer chain hydrocarbon molecules yields multiple molecules of CO<sub>2</sub>. Oxidation of longer chain alkanes also has a higher potential for releasing hazardous gaseous pollutants. Moreover, much less energy is required to transport natural gas over a given distance compared to liquid or solid fuels [1]. Given these benefits, it is not surprising that natural gas distribution systems are virtually ubiquitous.</p> <p> </p> <p>The low cost of natural gas and ubiquity of natural gas distribution systems could potentially enable its use as a low-cost carbon feedstock for chemical syntheses, such as microbial fermentations. A serious concern for its use in any such applications, however, is the high global warming potential of methane, which is 25 times that of CO<sub>2</sub> [2]. Leaks from natural gas pipelines and the drilling process or losses during use could thus pose a significant threat to the environment, and undo the benefits. Management of such leaks needs strategies, and enabling use of natural gas for chemical synthesis operations will require insights into the rates and effects of microbial degradation of natural gas. At present, there is a surprising lack of knowledge on this subject, perhaps because researchers are focused on methane alone – the major component of natural gas – with scant attention to other components. In reality, the situation is complex. Natural gas is a mixture of alkanes consisting of methane (the solvent or primary component), and other gas solutes such as ethane, propane and butane. In pipeline applications, tert-butylthiol or t-butyl-mercaptan – a substance that smells like rotten eggs – may be added to enable detection of a leak.</p> <p> </p> <p>A potential attractive application for natural gas would be its use as feedstock for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHAs are naturally-occurring biodegradable polymers produced by a wide variety of bacteria through the fermentation of several carbon substrates when grown with excess carbon feedstock under nutrient-limiting conditions. The PHA polymers that accumulate as intracellular granules within the bacteria can be extracted and purified for use in a range of applications. Different feedstocks give rise to different PHA copolymers with different elasticity and strength [3,4]. Because these polymers are moldable, they can be extracted and purified for use as biodegradable plastics. All of these properties make PHAs promising replacements for persistent plastics such as polypropylene. PHAs can also serve as prebiotics (a substance that when ingested, alters gut microflora and promotes disease resistance) for aquatic animals and as an insecticide carrier for agricultural purposes [5,6,7]. At present, PHAs are made from harvested feedstock (sugar from corn; oil from soy bean or palm nuts), but use of methane is potentially more viable, both economically and environmentally [8]. </p> <p> </p> <p>Type II methanotrophic bacteria can produce pure polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) of high quality under nutrient-limited conditions [9,10]. Recently, Myung et al. [11] demonstrated that the range of PHAs produced by Type II methanotrophs can be expanded by adding co-substrates. This discovery opens the door for broader use of both biogas methane and natural gas. For use of natural gas, however, the diversity of solutes presents a challenge. A major concern is the potential for inhibition or toxicity due to co-metabolism, and the production and accumulation of partial oxidation products. This is particularly the case for pure cultures. Enrichments could potentially address this issue through diversification and metabolic specialization, but the impacts of such activity on the rates of degradation and on the products produced are unclear. In theory, a more diverse natural gas composition would yield a more diverse community, containing organisms capable of co-existing in the same environment and working syntrophically to prevent accumulation of toxic intermediates [12]. The underlying hypothesis of this proposal is that increasing the amount and diversity of solutes in natural gas will increase community diversity, generate new pathways for PHA synthesis, and result in co-polymers or polymer blends that reflect the diversity of substrates in the feedstock.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Research Objectives and Proposed Studies</h2> <p>The overarching goal of this project is to gain a basic understanding of the interactions that take place in mixed cultures enriched under different conditions and how these interactions could be targeted for designing PHA-producing systems. This proposal focuses on the following areas:</p> <ol><li>Impacts of Multiple Gaseous Substrates on Community Diversity and PHA Accumulation: Here we hypothesize that increasing the number of substrates in natural gas will diversify the microbial community. Therefore, a more diverse natural gas feedstock could produce a mixture of pure PHA polymers and a wide variety of co-polymers.</li> <li>Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas as a Feedstock: A life cycle analysis would be carried out to justify the environmental feasibility of natural gas as a substrate for PHA production.</li> </ol><p> </p> <p>These studies would employ a series of molecular techniques to test and monitor the microbial community, growth analysis and PHA quantification methods to observe growth rates in the community and measure PHA accumulation. Life cycle analysis software – SimaPro – would be used to carryout the environmental impact assessments.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Natural Gas - Section 2: Background</h2> <h2>2.1 Natural Gas as a Resource</h2> <p>Natural gas is undergoing a revolution. Advances in drilling technologies have significantly lowered its prices and accelerated its use as a fuel. Natural gas is attractive because it is clean-burning and releases less CO<sub>2</sub> per unit of energy than other fossil carbon fuels. In less than half a century, the global market for natural gas has increased more than fourfold (104 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in 2009) since 1965 [13]. The U.S. alone consumed 23.4 Tcf of natural gas in 2009, accounting for slightly under a quarter of the total energy supply. Of the total energy required by the residential and commercial sectors in 2009, 76% came from natural gas alone [13]. Natural gas could potentially be a bridge to a low-carbon future because of its low-carbon intensity compared to other supplies of carbon.</p> <p> </p> <p>Natural gas is formed when subsurface deposits of burned biomass undergo methanogenesis – anaerobic microbial decomposition to methane and CO<sub>2</sub> – and catagenesis – thermal decomposition due to sustained application of intense heat and pressure over tens of millions of years. The major chemical component of natural gas is methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) accompanied by lesser portions of heavier hydrocarbons such as ethane (C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>6</sub>), propane (C<sub>3</sub>H<sub>8</sub>), butane (C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>10</sub>), and pentane (C<sub>5</sub>H<sub>12</sub>). When natural gas is extracted from the ground as “wet” natural gas, it contains less than 85% of methane as a solvent with natural gas liquids (NGL) solutes (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) [14,15]. Typically, the NGLs are extracted to make “dry” natural gas, a purified product that is almost all methane and the NGLs are sold separately. The composition of dry natural gas varies depending on its source and procedures used to processing it [16]. As shown in Table 1, dry natural gas includes trace amounts of impurities such as nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide [16]. Additionally, as a safety precaution, a sulfur-like odorant, usually called mercaptan (mixtures of t-butyl mercaptan, isopropyl mercaptan, tetrahydrothiophene, dimethyl sulfide and other sulfur compounds), is deliberately added to the gas pipeline to help detect leaks. </p> <p> </p> <p><b>Table 1: A Typical Composition of Natural Gas. Adapted from A. Demirbas (2010)</b></p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Chemical Component</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>Range (vol. %)</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Methane (CH<sub>4</sub>)</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>87 – 96</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Ethane (C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>6</sub>)</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>1.8 – 5.1</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Propane (C<sub>3</sub>H<sub>8</sub>)</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>0.1 – 1.5</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Butane (C<sub>4</sub>H<sub>10</sub>)</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>0.01 – 0.3</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Pentane (C<sub>5</sub>H<sub>12</sub>)</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>Trace to 0.14</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Nitrogen (N<sub>2</sub>)</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>1.3 – 5.6</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>)</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>0.1 – 1.0</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Oxygen (O<sub>2</sub>)</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>0.01 – 0.1</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S), Ammonia (NH<sub>3</sub>), Hydrogen (H<sub>2</sub>)</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>Trace Amounts</p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> <p>The quality of natural gas varies based on the type of resource. Conventional resources are of higher quality because they have high permeability, require less technology for drilling and production, and yield higher recovery factors than non-conventional resources such as shale gas, tight gas sands, methane hydrates, etc. [13]. As seen in Figure 1, natural gas production is global and its delivery systems are ubiquitous (Figure 2). In the U.S., natural gas supplies are abundant, and its transportation to end-users is straightforward and more energy efficient than transporting other fuels. U.S. natural gas infrastructure contains 300,000miles of transmission lines, numerous natural gas systems, storage facilities, processing plants, distribution pipelines, and import terminals [13]. Distribution lines are wired directly into the majority of homes, buildings and industries. As demand and supply of natural gas increases, expansion of infrastructure will be required to accommodate this need. Moreover, as technologies have improved and markets expanded, natural gas prices have plummeted from about $5/MMBtu in 2014 to less than $3/MMBtu in 2015 [17].</p> <p> </p> <p><b>Figure 1: Global Natural Gas Production</b></p> <img alt="Fig 1 - Natural Gas" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="802deda1-f104-4a39-b266-1e4bc9007320" height="454" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/78F5E07F-9B63-432D-8378-985A689F1688.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p>Note 1: Image from U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012 [18]</p> <p> </p> <p><b>Figure 2: Natural Gas Delivery Systems in the U.S.</b></p> <img alt="Fig 2 - Natural Gas" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="bb27a5af-bb63-4486-938c-af66b8cb722e" height="232" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/6B78BF7A-4277-4560-9279-2B91B3A61F9E.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p>Note 2: Image from American Gas Association, 2015 [19]</p> <p>With the current appealing nature of natural gas, its potentials could be explored in other avenues other than the energy industry. Natural gas could be exploited in the material and agricultural industry as a potential feedstock to make high-value products like biodegradable polymers. Most recently, methane gas has been used as a cheap feedstock to make biodegradable polymers called polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) [9,10]. Therefore, given the high methane content of natural gas, it could be used to make PHA products and PHA animal feed supplements. </p> <p> </p> <h2>2.2    Benefits and Concerns of Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs)</h2> <p>Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers that are biodegradable, biocompatible and recyclable. PHAs exhibit excellent mechanical properties in terms of elasticity and strength, and are therefore a great replacement for synthetic polymers [20,21]. PHAs are a family of naturally-occurring polymers synthesized by a wide variety of bacteria when grown with excess carbon feedstock and under nutrient-limiting conditions. PHAs occur as intracellular storage compound and accumulate as granules within the bacteria [22]. When extracted and purified, PHAs can be used for a wide range of applications such as packaging material, cosmetic products, medical implants and drug delivery. PHAs can also serve as prebiotic for aquatic animals and for agricultural purposes. In the agricultural sector, poly(3-hydroxybutrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) or PHBV – a PHA copolymer – has been used to administer insecticides when crops are sown [5]. PHAs can also be used as carriers for bacterial inoculants to improve nitrogen fixation. PHAs help the bacterial cells used to prepare long-term inoculants to withstand harsh environmental conditions [5]. In the aquatic sector, PHAs have been proven to sustain aquaculture. Studies have shown that short chain fatty acids (SCFA) can increase the growth rate of aquatic animals [6,7]. Since SCFA are highly soluble in water and result in low uptake efficiency, PHAs, which are biodegradable polymers of fatty acids and insoluble in water, can be a supplement to the animal feed. The biodegradation of the PHA in the animal’s intestinal tracts would produce their fatty acid derivatives and improve the growth of the aquatic animal. In a recent study, the weight of European sea bass juveniles increased approximately 3-fold after a 6-week period of growing on PHB [6]. In another study, bacteria isolated from the gut of 3 aquatic animals, Siberian sturgeon, European sea bass and Giant River prawn, degraded PHB efficiently [7]. In the same study, brine shrimp larvae’s survival rate increased when incubated in the medium containing these bacterial isolates, PHB and a virulent pathogenic strain. These studies are proof that PHAs can affect crop yield, improve the performance of fish growth and also protect fish gut microbes from pathogenic infections. Therefore, PHAs are able to replace synthetic plastics and also contribute to the well-being of fish and agricultural crops.</p> <p> </p> <p>PHA polymers contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which have a general structure as seen in Figure 3. Approximately 150 different PHA polymers have been identified so far [20]. This number continues to increase as new PHA discoveries occur across the globe. </p> <p> </p> <p><b>Figure 3: General PHA Structure</b></p> <img alt="Natural Gas Fig x" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="17f4aad3-e52d-44a2-84e3-3d11c796dae1" height="133" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/4939091C-6140-4882-B235-25064E615B64.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p>PHAs have attracted much research and commercial interest due to these beneficial properties. However, manufacturing of PHA products still encounters several challenges, such as the use of unsustainable raw materials and the high cost of production. These challenges prevent its progress towards commercialization. Most commercially available PHA products today use food crops such as corn, sugar cane, palm oil, etc. for raw materials. The use of food crops has detrimental implications on food security. Therefore this approach would significantly increase the prices of staple foods since supply will become diverted towards polymer production. Furthermore, huge amounts of land will be required to grow these crops in order to match the feedstock demand [23]. This would also involve a substantial amount of water on a regular basis to irrigate these crops. Additionally, these raw materials are expensive which results in a major increase in the cost of the biopolymer product compared to its synthetic polymer counterparts [24]. Raw materials like corn are known to account for 50% of the total production cost. Therefore, these raw material choices alongside the price disparity not only places PHAs at a main disadvantage but also threaten to cause the global population to shy away from using PHA products or investing into its benefits. </p> <p> </p> <p>An effective way to address some of the issues related to the current production of PHA polymers is to utilize inexpensive carbon substrates like natural gas. Fortunately, the current prices of natural gas have dropped significantly compared to that of food crops like corn (Fig. 4). Therefore using natural gas as a feedstock will address the expensive production of PHAs by providing a cost advantage through large-scale centralized production, especially with its current delivery infrastructure being ubiquitous. Additionally, natural gas as a feedstock will create avenues to build PHA production industrialization systems distributed around the country and the world at large. Therefore, natural gas could become a bridge to the production of renewable PHAs and other high-value products.</p> <p> </p> <p><b>Figure 4: Trends Comparing Corn Prices in ¢/Bushel (units on the left) and Natural Gas Prices in $/MMBTUs (units on the right) Over a 1-year Period. (Reprinted from tradingeconomic.com)</b></p> <img alt="Fig 4" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="cf491c8e-1377-47d3-a5af-f7ff5c51d77f" height="289" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/3FA19F8A-80D6-4408-A243-A2D6BB420EBC.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <h2>2.3 Specific Implications of PHAs from Natural Gas</h2> <p>PHAs from natural gas could have potential rewards in terms of their environmental impact, biodegradability and their economic advantage.</p> <p> </p> <p>Primarily, PHAs from methane gas are environmentally preferable compared to those produced from agricultural feedstock stock like corn. Rostkowski et al. recently performed a life cycle assessment evaluating the environmental impacts of the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from biogas methane [23]. This study showed that PHB from biogas (global warming potential of -1.94 kg CO<sub>2</sub> equiv.) was environmentally and energetically favourable compared to PHB from corn (global warming potential of -0.1 kg CO<sub>2</sub> equiv.). The less-favourable impact from corn resulted from the large amounts of land and energy required to cultivate the agricultural feedstocks. Energy and chemicals required during PHB recovery, and the energy requirement for aeration and agitation, were the largest drawbacks to the production of PHB from biogas methane. This study proposed mitigating these impacts by using 18-26% of the incoming biogas methane to accommodate the energy requirements. The study proposed that using methane for energy generation could shrink the global warming potential of PHA from biogas to -6.06 kg CO<sub>2</sub> Equiv. [23]. Interestingly, PHAs required for animal feed supplements do not need to be extracted out of the cell. Therefore, this application would not only reduce the processing time but also significantly decrease the energy and chemicals required during PHA extraction, and its equivalent environmental impact. </p> <p> </p> <p>Secondly, PHAs from methane gas have a unique property in that they can be degraded anaerobically, making them an even more attractive alternative for synthetic polymers. During anaerobic biodegradation, microbes break down the PHA polymer to produce methane and carbon dioxide, in the absence of oxygen. This process usually occurs in landfills or anaerobic digesters. The resulting biogas (a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide) from the process can be burned to produce heat and electricity, or re-captured to produce more PHA [8]. </p> <p> </p> <p>Finally, PHAs from methane are more economically viable compared to those produced from food crops like corn and palm oil. The cost of food crops can vary greatly and is driven by the availability of food. Meanwhile, methane is generated from landfills and anaerobic digesters, and its prices are less sensitive to change. Since biogas methane has no available market price, its value can be related to natural gas whose current prices have fallen well below corn prices (see Fig. 4). However, biogas methane prices can be assumed to be less than that of natural gas, given that they are produced freely and available abundantly in the landfill, livestock cultivation and sewage treatment sites. This, therefore, makes the methane feedstock even cheaper. Table 2 compares the PHA conversion yields and feedstock prices for glucose, palm oil and methane gas.</p> <p> </p> <p><b>Table 2: Yield Values and Feedstock Costs for PHA production from glucose, palm oil and methane gas. (CalRecycle Report 2014)</b></p> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Substrate</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>Value</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>Feedstock Cost</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Glucose</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>0.25 – 0.34 g PHA/g glucose</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>$0.94 – 1.46 per kg PHA</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Palm oil</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>0.61 g PHA/g palm oil</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>$0.45 per kg PHA</p> </td> </tr><tr><td valign="top"> <p>Methane gas</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>0.49 – 0.5 g PHB/ g methane</p> </td> <td valign="top"> <p>$0.28 per kg PHB</p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> <p>All of the aforementioned benefits from methane gas are also possible with natural gas as a feedstock since it has become increasingly accessible with new extraction technologies. The PHA production cycle from natural gas would now look like that shown in Figure 5. Even with natural gas being a fossil carbon source, a somewhat closed-loop production process is possible. Additionally, the low price projections of natural gas and its already present infrastructure provide a cost-effective solution to accommodate the energy demands required for PHA production. Due to the abundance of natural gas supplies in the U.S., recent reports state that a huge amount of gas is still flared rather than marketed [25]. Additionally, leaks from natural gas pipelines and the drilling process or losses during use could pose a huge threat to the environment, and undo the benefits. Management of such leaks needs strategies, and enabling use of natural gas for PHA production will require insights into the rates and effects of microbial degradation of natural gas. At present, there is a surprising lack of information on this subject. Therefore, with the possibility of natural gas as an alternative feedstock to make PHAs, natural gas entities would be encouraged to improve their capture targets, and upgrade their delivery systems in order to direct some of the gas for the production of valuable products like PHAs. </p> <p> </p> <p><b>Figure 5: PHA Production from Natural Gas</b></p> <img alt="Natural Gas Fig" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="1d1f8806-e312-4a79-831f-701b83a39062" height="485" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/434B02AE-EF94-419C-9A25-E31A08641FC7.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <h2>2.4    Methanotrophs</h2> <p>Methane is the predominant component of natural gas. Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas and a major contributor to the global climate change. Therefore mitigating its emissions into the atmosphere is crucial. Fortunately, methane-oxidizing bacteria called methanotrophs can consume methane in aerobic environments to produce CO<sub>2</sub>. These methanotrophs use methane as their source of carbon and energy, and they can be classified into two well-known categories: Type I methanotrophs and Type II methanotrophs [26]. Methanotrophs possess methane monooxygenase (mmo) enzymes, which play a key role in initiating the oxidation of methane to methanol. These MMOs exhibit an unusual lack of substrate specificity and are therefore able to partake in a large number of biological transformations. This ability has made methanotrophs attractive to scientists who now use these capabilities to develop bioremediation technologies, and also use these bacteria for the production of value-added chemicals/products like PHAs [26]. MMOs exist in two forms: 1) the soluble MMO (sMMO) found only in a few methanotrophs and 2) the particulate MMO (pMMO) present in all methanotrophic bacteria. The expression of the different MMOs is controlled by the regulation of copper in the growth media. sMMO is expressed in the presence of low copper concentration while pMMO is expressed in the presence of high copper concentrations [27,28]. Aerobic methanotrophs contain specialized pathways to completely oxidize methane to CO<sub>2</sub> and to assimilate methane into the cell biomass. Type I methanotrophs utilize the ribulose monophose (RuMP) pathway while Type II methanotrophs use the serine pathway, and each of these pathways have different energy requirements [29]. Therefore, methane assimilation across different methanotrophic strains varies based on the pathways and MMOs they possess.</p> <p> </p> <p>Methanotrophs are ubiquitous in the environment and the methanotrophic class of interest can be selected by applying a number of culture methods. Understanding and implementing strategies for selecting one methanotrophic strain over the other is important to streamline or eliminate organisms of least importance for the biotransformation required. Type II methanotrophs are the only strains known to date to be solely capable of producing PHAs through the serine pathway [9]. Therefore, a number of developed strategies have been proven successful to restrict the growth of Type I methanotrophs in enriched cultures. One of these approaches includes the use of low copper medium, which activates sMMO that is expressed under low copper conditions. Since most Type I methanotrophs lack the sMMO genes, this method encourages the growth of Type II methanotrophs. However, methane oxidation using sMMO is very slow compared to that on pMMO [27]. Other approaches have included cultivating the cultures under low pH conditions and growing the cells on gaseous nitrogen. However, Type II methanotrophs are typically slow growers compared to Type I methanotrophs [26,9,30]. This slow growth is possibly due to the inefficiency of the serine pathway and achieving high cell densities is usually challenging. Therefore, establishing growth strategies to accelerate and maintain the steady growth of Type II methanotrophs is imperative. It has recently been discovered that alternating the nitrogen source between ammonium and nitrate during the growth phase can help achieve this goal [31]. </p> <p> </p> <p>Methanotrophic bacteria are also very capable of producing PHAs. The production of PHB has been linked to the serine cycle through which acetyl-CoA is produced [9]. A study to test for PHA production in methanotrophic bacteria showed that Type I methanotrophs did not produce PHB and therefore did not possess the phaC gene needed for PHB production [9]. Meanwhile, Type IIs were capable of producing PHB from methane gas via the serine pathway and hence possessed the phaC gene. Downstream of the serine pathway, three main enzymes (β-ketothiolase, Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase &amp; PHA synthase) are essential for PHB synthesis. β-ketothiolase encoded by phaA, condenses two acetyl-CoA molecules to form acetoacetyl-CoA. Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase encoded by phaB, then reduces acetoacetyl-CoA to (R)-3-hydroxybutryl-CoA which finally gets polymerized by an esterification process. With the aid of the PHA synthase enzyme (phaC), poly(3-hydroxybutrate), PHB is produced as a result [9] [22]. A schematic of this biological pathway can be seen in Figure 6.</p> <p> </p> <p><b>Figure 6: PHB Production from Methane via the Serine Cycle</b></p> <img alt="Natural Gas Fig" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="f1bf8461-83a8-4c8c-9c1a-0b815375f221" height="380" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/1C147660-8442-4403-8B4C-65FA006135A3.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p>Note 3: [1]-Methane monooxygenase (mmo); [2]-Methanol dehydrogenase; [3]-Formaldehyde dehydrogenase; [4]-Formate dehydrogenase; [5]-3-ketothiolase; [6]-Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase; [7]-PHA Synthase</p> <p>Given the high methane content of natural gas, it is a potential feedstock candidate for PHA production. However, the diverse nature of the natural gas mixture presents a number of opportunities as well as challenges. Growth inhibition is one major challenge. Growth inhibition could be caused by the presence of toxic compounds or degradation metabolites from the gaseous substrate. Growth inhibition is possible if the natural gas is fed directly to pure cultures of methanotrophs. To address this concern, mixed-culture enrichments – which contain majority methanotrophs together with other alkane oxidizers – will be capable of oxidizing natural gas concurrently. Other members in the consortium capable of growth on their metabolites and impurities – which would otherwise be toxic to these pure cultures – could consume these metabolites and hence hinder the possibility of inhibition. Furthermore, natural gas could be degraded to synthesize a variety of PHA copolymers and mixtures of pure PHA polymers with methane as the majority feedstock. The nature and the percentage of the co-polymer composition would reflect the percentage of higher alkanes present in the natural gas. However, regulating the composition of polymer mixtures is uncertain. Nevertheless, adjusting the alkane fraction could lead to a modification or diversity in the resulting co-polymer or pure polymer produced, conferring numerous useful properties such as flexibility, toughness and impact resistance. A recent invention has been able to capture a similar concept. Myung et al. used mixed culture enrichments dominated by a methanotrophic population to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy valerate) (PHBV) [11]. The results demonstrated that the addition of soluble volatile fatty acid (VFA) co-substrates (like valerate) during polymer synthesis resulted in the production of the PHBV copolymer. Methane gas was the primary growth substrate. Therefore, natural gas as a feedstock has capabilities of diversifying the PHA produced. </p> <p> </p> <h2>2.5 Impacts of Substrate Diversity</h2> <p>In nature, microorganisms coexist and constantly cooperate or compete with each other for resources [32]. A diverse substrate like natural gas tends to encourage biodiversity in a microbial community. Biodiversity plays an important role in boosting the ecosystem’s productivity where all species are able to benefit from one another in a sustainable manner. Even though microorganisms are sensitive to environmental changes, they are able to form complex community interactions with organisms at different trophic levels, and hence adapt to the environmental perturbation [33]. Methanotrophic bacteria themselves are quite capable of forming interactions with a wide variety of microorganisms [34]. Many of these interactions are mutually beneficial, such as the removal of formaldehyde – a toxic by-product of methane oxidation. Understanding these interactions and mutual relationships when natural gas is provided as a feedstock is important. These dynamics between interacting microorganisms can be affected by a number of physical, biological and biochemical changes. Furthermore, external disturbance from their environment and the availability of diverse substrates like natural gas can influence these interactions. Therefore understanding how species adapt and assemble themselves in microbial communities is crucial in order to perform targeted biotransformation.</p> <p> </p> <p>The concept of metabolic specialization can further our understanding of this ideology. Metabolic specialization is a biological principle that defines the collaborative effort between consortia of species to collectively consume a variety of substrates. In this case, individual species specialize in consuming a subset of these substrates, or a metabolite produced from the oxidation of these substrates, to collectively generate a desirable product. This principle is supposed to shape the assembly of microbial communities and therefore, it is promoted by a number of biochemical conflicts between different metabolic processes [12]. Three biochemical conflicts have been identified and hypothesized to influence metabolic specialization. </p> <ol><li>Conflicts resulting from competition for intracellular resources could occur where the solvent capacity of a cell is exceeded, hence causing the cell to metabolize only the most productive substrates. </li> <li>Conflicts due to growth-inhibitory metabolites or end products are also possible. This encourages the evolution of cross-feeding cells types capable of degrading the toxic substances.</li> <li>Conflicts due to enzyme specificity could occur where the same enzyme interacts with a variety of substrates. This could cause the enzyme to improve its specificity for only one substrate and reduce it specificity for the others. </li> </ol><p> </p> <p>These consequences of biochemical conflicts mostly influence a genetic change, which could be beneficial for some metabolic processes and unfavourable for others. It is therefore important to understand the constraints and interactions between the metabolic processes involved. However, measuring biochemical conflicts has several challenges. Biochemical conflicts often affect multiple metabolic processes that are connected through complex interaction and it is problematic to entirely place restrictions between only a few metabolic processes. Even though concurrent improvements can be made in a number of processes, these improvements are achievable at a cost to other metabolic processes. Furthermore, different environmental conditions greatly affect the interactions between metabolic processes since each process in a cell is connected to a large network of other processes [12]. A framework of design principles could thereby be built from obtaining knowledge of the biochemical causes of metabolic specializations. Therefore, scientists can use these principles to establish strategies for constructing microbial communities capable of performing desired biological transformations like PHA production. </p> <p> </p> <p>Natural gas as a growth substrate would thereby provide some background into the dynamics occurring between interacting microorganisms. Figure 7 shows a schematic of some potential pathways involved in the natural gas degradation process by certain specialized microorganisms. The initial step in the degradation of each alkane present can be carried out by a wide variety of enzymes specific to certain specialized microorganisms. However, it is not uncommon to have coexistence of degradation systems in one microorganism. Therefore, it is imperative to understand how alkanes are incorporated in the cell and how the organisms work together for beneficial purposes. </p> <p> </p> <p><b>Figure 7: PHA Biosynthesis Pathways from Natural Gas Substrates [35,3,4,36,37]</b></p> <img alt="Natural Gas Fig" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="2345ee43-4033-49fe-853b-6ff3acf03889" height="461" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/C2B5ED94-EDEC-4EC1-99EB-B05CE61DE39E.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p>Note 4: [1]-Alkane monooxygenase; [2]-Subterminal alkane monooxygenase; [3]-Alcohol dehydrogenase; [4]-Baeyer Villiger monoxygensae; [5]-Aldehyde dehydrogenase; [6]-Esterase; [7]-Acyl-CoA Synthase; [8]-PHA Synthase </p> <p> </p> <h2>2.6 Project Objectives</h2> <p>Broadening our understanding of the factors affecting microbial diversity will allow us to assess the metabolic activities at play and every microbe’s role in a mixed culture. Microbial diversity analyses would provide the tools to evaluate the functional role of microbial diversity and the consequences of biodiversity [38]. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this project is to gain a basic understanding of the interactions that take place in mixed cultures enriched under different conditions and how these interactions could be targeted for designing PHA-producing systems. </p> <p> </p> <p>The major objectives of this project are as follows:</p> <ol><li>To understand the implication of substrate diversity on a microbial community structure, specifically when natural gas of different compositions is supplied as the carbon substrate and to quantify the resulting PHA produced.</li> <li>To justify the environmental impacts of natural gas as a sustainable PHA feedstock through a life cycle assessment.</li> </ol><p> </p> <p align="right">Continue to <a href="microbial-degradation-natural-gas-effects-multiple-competing-substrates-part-3">Section 3: Research Studies</a></p> <p> </p> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/microbial-degradation-natural-gas" data-a2a-title="MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NATURAL GAS - EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE COMPETING SUBSTRATES - PART 1"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Fmicrobial-degradation-natural-gas&amp;title=MICROBIAL%20DEGRADATION%20OF%20NATURAL%20GAS%20-%20EFFECTS%20OF%20MULTIPLE%20COMPETING%20SUBSTRATES%20-%20PART%201"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/environmental-engineering-and-science" hreflang="en">Environmental Engineering and Science</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Sun, 17 Nov 2019 17:57:58 +0000 Wakuna Galega 549 at https://prettygoodpost.org https://prettygoodpost.org/microbial-degradation-natural-gas#comments MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NATURAL GAS - EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE COMPETING SUBSTRATES - PART 2 https://prettygoodpost.org/microbial-degradation-natural-gas-3 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NATURAL GAS - EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE COMPETING SUBSTRATES - PART 2</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/wakuna-galega" lang="" about="/wakuna-galega" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">Wakuna Galega</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 11/17/2019 - 12:07</span> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/097CF633-9315-4DF1-9368-E4658E57E724.jpeg" width="1024" height="643" alt="Natural Gas" title="Natural Gas" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div align="left">Return to <a href="microbial-degradation-natural-gas-effects-multiple-competing-substrates-part-1">Section 1: Proposal Summary</a></div> <h2>Section 3: Research Studies</h2> <h3><i>Increasing the Number of Substrates in Natural Gas will Diversify the Microbial Community</i></h3> <h4>Rationale:</h4> <p>Studies have shown that when a complex sample like activated sludge is inoculated with natural gas, methane, under aerobic conditions, methanotrophic bacteria dominate the microbial community [11]. Selecting the desired class of methanotrophs (either Type I or Type II) could be constrained to several operating conditions such as the nitrogen source, dissolved oxygen concentration, copper concentration and pH. In the same microbial community, methanotrophs coexist with methylotrophs and heterotrophs, which are capable of surviving on the metabolites of methane oxidation such as methane, formaldehyde, formate and other decay products. Some observed organisms include Hyphomicrobium [39,40] – a facultative methylotrophic genus – known to grow on C<sub>1</sub> and C<sub>2</sub> compounds. Hyphomicrobium is also capable of accumulating intracellular PHAs. Other organisms observed in the community include Burkholderia (known to contain several formaldehyde oxidation/detoxification pathways) [41] and Hydrotalea  (know to assimilate formate) [42]. Emphasis has been placed primarily on selecting for methane-utilizing bacteria capable of producing polyhydroxalkanoate (PHAs) from pure methane gas. Based on the selection strategies employed, a consistent stable community of Type II methanotrophs can be maintained throughout the process. However, there is no evidence in the literature on natural gas enrichments or PHA studies with natural gas as a feedstock.</p> <p> </p> <p>In this study, we will explore the possibilities of using natural gas as a feedstock to produce diverse microbial enrichments. We hypothesize that a microbial community enriched with natural gas as a carbon source would encourage the selection of organisms capable of oxidizing subsets of the natural gas substrate and/or metabolites produced from its oxidation. In the presence of such a diverse substrate, the selected microbial community could prevent toxicity, and encourage cross feeding in the community. Based on the number of carbon substrate present, we hypothesize that diversity and richness will correlate with the number of carbon substrates present. This correlation could either be exponential, linear or logarithmic. Figure 8 demonstrates the possible diversity progressions that we expect to observe in the community. Therefore, in this study we will analyze the microbial communities by evaluating the community structures produced from different natural gas compositions.</p> <p> </p> <p><b>Figure 8: Plausible Microbial Diversity Changes Based on Number of Gaseous Substrates Present</b></p> <img alt="Graph" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="67e4c3d4-84c5-49c8-8632-78927ca79708" height="484" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/91251E4B-DA08-4CCB-A104-711655658A5D.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><div><em>Adapted from the Johnson Theory (D.R. Johnson et al. 2012)</em></div> <p> </p> <p></p><div> <div class="adsense responsive"> <script async="" src="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/js/adsbygoogle.js"></script><!-- in-article --><ins class="adsbygoogle" style="display:block; text-align:center;" data-ad-layout="in-article" data-ad-format="fluid" data-ad-client="ca-pub-8693677248605271" data-ad-slot="1123672658"></ins> <script> <!--//--><![CDATA[// ><!-- <!--//--><![CDATA[// ><!-- (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); //--><!]]]]><![CDATA[> //--><!]]> </script></div> </div> <p> </p> <h3><i>#1B    Pure PHA Polymer Mixtures and Copolymer Production is Possible with Natural Gas as a Feedstock</i></h3> <p><b>Rationale:</b></p> <p>When microbial communities are selected for PHA production using methane gas as sole feedstock, these communities, mostly dominated by Type II methanotrophs, are only capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). A recent study from the Criddle lab has shown that microbial communities dominated by Type II methanotrophs (Methylocystis) can incorporate volatile fatty acids like valeric acid during polymer production process to produce a copolymer of PHB and polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) [11]. This study went further to prove that the fraction of PHV incorporated into the polymer could be tailored based on the quantity of valerate added. Based on this study and on the concept that metabolic specialization can drive diversity in microbial communities [12], we hypothesize that a community enriched with different compositions of natural gas will include several other PHA-accumulating bacteria. These bacteria would be capable of producing a variety of pure PHA polymer mixtures and/or PHA copolymers. We will therefore investigate these possibilities.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <h3><i>#2    Natural Gas could be an Environmentally Viable Feedstock for PHA Production</i></h3> <p><b>Rationale:</b></p> <p>Evaluating the environmental impact of PHA production from natural gas is important to establish a justification for its preference as a raw material source over currently available agricultural feedstock. Life cycle assessments (LCA) are valuable tools used to quantify and assess how materials used in a production process impact the environment. A study from the Criddle lab developed a cradle-to-gate LCA model to evaluate the environmental impacts of PHB production from biogas methane up to the point of the extracted polymer resin [23]. This study showed that PHB production from biogas methane was energetically favorable compared to production from corn-based carbon sources (37.4 MJ/kg of PHB for biogas methane and 41.9 MJ/kg of PHB for corn). The use of corn-based materials requires large inputs of land and energy for growth of the crop, which makes its production process less environmentally benign. In this study however, PHB recovery from the cell material was a major contributor to it environmental impacts mostly due to the huge energy and chemical input required for PHB extraction. The study suggested using biogas methane to reduce the energy requirement and employing more environmentally suitable methods for extraction of the PHB resin. Given that natural gas contains a mixture of alkanes, it would, therefore, be valuable to assess its environmental footprint as a potential PHA production feedstock.</p> <p> </p> <p>Natural gas – which is primarily methane – is known to have a lower carbon footprint compared to other fossil fuels. This classifies the gas as a clean-burning fuel due to its lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Studies have reinforced this fact by showing that the increased use of natural gas in 2012 significantly reduced carbon dioxide levels to the lowest level since 1992 [43]. Additionally, the price of natural gas has been on a steep decline in the past few years. Given these advantages, we thereby hypothesize that natural gas is a very promising feedstock for the production of value-added products like PHAs. Therefore, a life cycle analysis would provide justification for its use in the production of these products. </p> <p> </p> <img alt="Natural Gas" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a02ed16f-be58-4e8b-ac26-2bf6a063d930" height="426" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/B2C3AF30-39BA-4ED4-A1D4-E5C2A4CE98F0.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <div align="left">Return to <a href="microbial-degradation-natural-gas-effects-multiple-competing-substrates-part-3">Section 3</a></div> <h2>Section 4: Research Plan</h2> <p><b>Figure 9: Natural Gas Research Outline</b></p> <img alt="Natural Gas Research outline" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="e3c22001-c629-489a-b833-16b3571c24b3" height="393" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/9F55A72A-23AF-40CF-AB76-878225B8036E.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <h2>4.1 Proposed Work</h2> <h3>4.1.1 Inoculum Selection</h3> <div>A key parameter in this study, is obtaining a diverse inoculum that is stable and uniform, and can be used to test the different outcomes of this study. Therefore, the seed inoculum would originate from the cell culture used by Myung et al. [11]. This study demonstrated the production of PHBV from a stable Methylocystis enrichment when fed methane and valerate during PHA production. This cell culture was proven to be stable and consistent over an extended period of time (2 years+), and contained a diverse community of organisms. To begin my studies, I would test the inoculum individually for ethane and propane degraders, since they would be the gaseous substrates of focus in this study. These results would verify the viability of the inoculum as suitable for the diversity studies required for this project.</div> <p>  </p> <h3>4.1.2 Impacts of Multiple Gaseous Substrates on Community Diversity and PHA Accumulation </h3> <p>Molecular Analysis Studies:</p> <p>To assess the microbial community structures, I will prepare enrichments using methane gas alone (as a baseline control) along with synthetic natural gas (SNG) created with different combinations of three gaseous substrates (methane, ethane, propane), and pipeline natural gas (PNG). SNG will mimic natural gas compositions from different sources where methane is the solvent. Stanford University’s PNG is supplied by the Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&amp;E) Company. Samples would be cultured with ammonium as the nitrogen source, a modified W1 growth media used for culturing methanotrophs and oxygen as the electron acceptor. All experiments would be carried out at 30<sup>o</sup>C and sampling would be performed in replicates. Figure 10 demonstrates a proposed execution plan for the investigation with multiple gaseous substrates.</p> <p> </p> <p>Figure 10: Investigations on the Impacts of Multiple Gaseous Substrates on Community Diversity</p> <img alt="Natural Gas Figure 10" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="81858d5e-1388-4942-ab45-5f3c48892256" height="502" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/8BE0175F-DADE-48EC-AB69-8F58B777624B.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p> </p> <p>After cultures have grown to an optical density (OD<sub>670</sub>)&gt;1, the selected enrichments would be harvested for further analysis. I will extract DNA from the harvested samples, amplify and sequence the 16S genes, either by performing Illumina or Sanger sequencing analysis for all instances. These sequencing analyses would allow us to identify the different organisms present at the community level and detect the key players. Throughout the continuous growth of the cultures, samples will be collected frequently based on a fixed time-series. These samples will be analyzed using a Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method to profile the microbial communities and measure the species’ richness and evenness in the community. The T-RFLP analysis will also enable us to determine the similarities and differences between enrichments growing on different gaseous substrate combinations. These results would give us insights into the effects of the different gaseous substrate compositions on the self-assembled microbial communities. They would also enable the detection of shifts in the microbial community structures and the stability in the community over time. Moreover, these molecular analysis results would provide information about organisms specialized at degrading the gaseous substrates, which would enable us to identify possible strategies for selecting desired communities. Figure 11 the experimental plan for the molecular analysis investigations.</p> <p> </p> <p><b>Figure 11: Molecular Analysis Flow Chart</b></p> <img alt="Natural Gas Molecular Analysis Flow Chart" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="331eb549-3577-47be-945c-90bfeca8ebf1" height="418" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/D00E92AD-EA00-4FA6-8B9E-F4DB3110BBBC.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p> </p> <h2>Growth Kinetics Studies</h2> <p>Substrate utilization and oxygen uptake rates would be used to assess the levels of gaseous substrate consumption and to monitor substrate degradation patterns in the different microbial communities. To carry out this assessment, gas samples would be drawn from the headspace of the reactor periodically throughout the growth cycle and analyzed on a Gas Chromatograph (GC) with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). These results would provide information on the amount of oxygen required to optimally metabolize the carbon substrate combinations in order to select for the desired microbial community. With these results, we would observe the different trends in gaseous substrates consumption and correlate it to the dominating organisms in the community, thereby giving us insight about the most favorable organisms.</p> <p> </p> <p>Given the gaseous substrate mixtures provided, growth rates would vary in all the different scenarios. In order to analyze the growth rates under the different gaseous substrate mixture conditions, liquid samples will be drawn from the reactors periodically. Growth rate analyses would be performed using both Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) techniques. These results would demonstrate the different growth patterns of the cultures growing on the gaseous co-substrates, which would enable us to observe any disparities or anomalies influenced by these changes. In addition, the pH of the growth reactors would be monitored regularly since different pH conditions can influence the growth of various microorganisms. </p> <p> </p> <h2>PHA Production Studies</h2> <p>An ultimate goal of this project is to select microbial communities capable of effectively producing PHAs. Therefore, I will investigate the impacts different gaseous substrates combinations have on PHA accumulation. Previous studies from the Criddle lab have shown that non-growth substrates can be co-metabolized by methanotrophs and incorporated into their polymer to produce PHA co-polymers [11]. In light of this finding, we expect that samples enriched with a combination of alkanes would behave the same way. Given that the microbial enrichment would contain a diverse array of microorganisms, this diversity would result in the accumulation of a variety of polymer combinations: both pure PHA polymer and/or PHA co-polymers. Therefore, in this study, these microbial enrichments would be deprived of nitrogen (ammonia) to impose PHA accumulation and harvested for further PHA analysis. The resulting PHA produced would be quantified using a GC with a flame ionization detector (FID). A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis would be carried out to differentiate between pure PHA polymers and PHA co-polymers. A VSS and/or TSS analysis would also be performed during the PHA accumulation phase to determine peak points of PHA accumulation. </p> <p> </p> <h3>4.1.3 Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas as a Feedstock</h3> <p>In this study, we would use Life Cycle Analyses (LCA) design tools to assess the environmental impacts of natural gas as a feedstock for PHA production. The LCA would be comprised of four components: the goals and scope definition, an inventory analysis, impact assessment and data interpretation. Initially, the goal and scope definition would identify the measurement parameters. Specific environmental impact categories would be examined based on standards determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this section, the SimaPro LCA software would be used to collect, analyze and monitor the sustainability performance data and carbon footprint of natural gas as a PHA feedstock. Secondly, the inventory analysis would highlight the processes and flow of materials for PHA production from natural gas. Here, the boundaries of the study would be set. Thirdly, the impact assessment would report the impacts resulting from the production of PHA from natural gas and specify values for each impact. Finally, the data would be interpreted and the environmental impacts compared to PHA production from corn. These results would enable us to identify areas for environmental pollution prevention, guide performance improvements and ways to reduce resource consumption.</p> <h2> </h2> <h2>4.2 Preliminary Results</h2> <h3>4.2.1 Microbial Communities Structures for Cultures Grown on Pure Methane Gas. </h3> <p>Fresh activated sludge from the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) was filtered through a 100 um nylon filter to remove large particles. The filtrate was centrifuged (4300 rpm) for 15mins and the pellet re-suspended in a modified W1 growth medium. The modified W1 medium contained the following chemicals per L of solution: 8.3 mM MgSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O, 1.4 mM CaCl<sub>2</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O, 36 mM NaHCO<sub>3</sub>, 3.6 mM KH<sub>2</sub>PO4, 6.8 mM K<sub>2</sub>HPO4, 10.5 uM Na<sub>2</sub>MoO<sub>4</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O, 8.2 uM CuCl<sub>2</sub>.5H<sub>2</sub>O, 200 uM Fe-EDTA, 5 mL trace metal solution, and 20 mL vitamin solution. The trace stock solution contained the following chemicals per L of solution: 500 mg FeSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O, 400 mg ZnSO<sub>4</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O, 20 mg MnCl<sub>2</sub>.7H<sub>2</sub>O, 50 mg CoCl<sub>2</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O, 10 mg NiCl<sub>2</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O, 15 mg H<sub>3</sub>BO<sub>3</sub> and 250 mg EDTA. The vitamin stock solution contained the following chemicals per L of solution: 2.0 mg biotin, 2.0 mg folic acid, 5.0 mg thiamine HCl, 5.0 mg calcium pantothenate, 0.1 mg vitamin B12, 5.0 mg riboflavin and 5.0 mg nicotinamide. The suspension was used as the initial inoculum for the study. 5-mL aliquots of inoculum were added to serum vials containing 44.5 mL of the modified W1 medium and 0.5 ml of a 1 M ammonium stock solution. The samples were inoculated with a methane-to-oxygen ratio of 1:2, and incubated at 30 <sup>o</sup>C under continuous shaking conditions (160 rpm). Every 24 hrs, the headspace of each bottle was flushed with the same methane-to-oxygen ratio while every 48 hrs, each bottle was amended with 0.5 mL of the 1 M ammonium stock solution.</p> <p> </p> <p>After approximately 2 weeks of incubation, the enriched cultures reached an optical density (OD<sub>670</sub>) greater than 1.5. The cultures were centrifuged (4300 rpm), re-suspended in a modified W1 medium and divided into 10-mL aliquots for inoculation of triplicate fed-batch serum bottle cultures. Each fed-batch culture initially contained 10 mL of inoculum, 39.5 mL of the modified W1 medium and 0.5 mL of ammonium stock (total volume 50 mL). After a 48-h incubation period, each of the triplicate enrichments was subjected to a cyclic feeding and wasting regime, with alternating pulses of methane/oxygen and ammonium. </p> <p> </p> <p>In order to establish the different types of bacteria species present in the enrichments, DNA was extracted from the samples, amplified and sequenced to obtain a 16S rRNA clone library. Figure 13 shows a chart of the bacterial species observed from cultures enriched with either methane gas. Based on the results obtained from 26 sequenced clones, Hyphomicrobium species – a facultative methylotroph that grows on C1 and C2 compound and accumulates PHA intracellular – made up about a quarter of the population. Unexpectedly, Type II methanotroph – Methylocystis – was observed as a minority member in the community. Other genera present in the community included Pandorea and Simplicispira, both of which are PHA producers. In an attempt to replicate these results or observe a more favourable outcome, the experiment was repeated with the same activated sludge that had been preserved in a 4 <sup>o</sup>C fridge for about 3-4 weeks. The outcome can be seen in Figure 12. Based on results obtained from 38 sequenced clones, all the species observed were Type I methanotrophs (Methylobacillus, Methylosarcina, Methylomicrobium) and the community structure was completely different from the first analysis. These results reveal that the inoculum plays a key role in this study and the community structure in an inoculum like activated sludge can change over time. Therefore, in order to obtain replicable results, a stable and uniform inoculum would need to be established and maintained for all experiments. Further investigations using multiple gaseous substrates and a uniform inoculum would reveal the diversity and shifts in the community. </p> <table border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" style="width: 760px/;"><thead><tr><th scope="col">Figure 13: Community Structure from First Methane Enrichment</th> <th scope="col">Figure 12: Community Structure from Second Methane Enrichment</th> </tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><img alt="Natural Gas" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="662532e7-a9d2-4f1d-b28b-d3aac195a0a5" height="330" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/3000F7CC-23D8-430F-8292-273151654DF4.jpeg" width="300" class="align-center" /><p> </p> </td> <td><img alt="Natural Gas " data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="61abef4c-de11-4f49-8bc3-70a15c909016" height="292" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/63F75FCB-593E-449B-9D85-7DFEB7885BE7.jpeg" width="340" class="align-center" /><p> </p> </td> </tr></tbody></table><p> </p> <h3>4.2.2    PHA Composition from Selected Communities</h3> <p>In order to investigate the PHA accumulated by the resulting enrichment, a PHA analysis was performed following a similar protocol described by Myung et al. [11]. After 48 hrs of cell growth, the cultures were centrifuged (4300 rpm) for 15 mins to obtain a pellet. The pellet was re-suspended in a modified W1 media with no nitrogen and incubated with a methane-to-oxygen ratio of 1:2 for 24 hrs. After 24 hrs, the cells were centrifuged, and the pellet was freeze-dried for a PHA analysis. PHA quantification was carried out using a GC with a flame ionization detector (FID). Results from this analysis can be seen in Figure 14 below. The first community with PHA producers yielded a PHB content of 25% dry weight while the second community with Type I methanotrophs produced little to no PHB (~2%). These results affirm the fact that Type I methanotrophs do not produce PHA and methane gas as the sole carbon source would produce only PHB. Further studies using more uniform and stable inoculum would look at the different PHA compositions produced with multiple gaseous substrates and the alkane concentrations that produce a significant amount of diversity in the PHA content.</p> <p> </p> <p>Figure 14: % PHB Produced from Different Methane Enrichments</p> <img alt="Natural Gas" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="4221de18-35e1-4522-b083-c3c0e503dc2a" height="277" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/2295227B-D395-48AB-ADC3-8B8F40D8CDAB.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <h2>Section 5: Expected Outcomes and Contributions</h2> <p>The primary goal for the studies outlined in this proposal is to establish a fundamental understanding around substrate diversity and how it impacts and/or alters a microbial community. The information from these studies will provide insights necessary to develop strategies for selecting communities capable of producing PHAs of different compositions. The project will culminate with a life cycle assessment, which would justify the environmental impacts that result from the use of natural gas as a feedstock. </p> <p> </p> <p>Impacts of Multiple Gaseous Substrates on Community Diversity and PHA Accumulation: Here, we will use molecular biology tools to monitor and compare the community patterns upon utilization of multiple gaseous substrate combination. Meanwhile, gas chromatographic tools would provide us with a quantitative analysis of the PHA produced. Some specific expected outcomes are as follows:</p> <ul><li>Diversity assessments would increase our knowledge of the underlying causes of metabolic specialization. These assessments would provide information on the communities assembled under the different imposed growth conditions, including the dominant species present. Knowledge about the distribution of the different organisms across the community would be relevant to obtain insights about their roles and significance in the community alongside enabling us to test the Johnson Theory [12]. This information would enable us to detect community shifts, determine ways to maintain stable community structures, and propose possible causes of vulnerabilities (if any) in the community. Additionally, information from these studies would be instrumental when trying to identify approaches on producing tailor-made PHAs from a diverse community.</li> <li>Comparing the possibly different types of PHA produced from these diverse communities would provide vital information necessary to understand the roles the different organisms play in the PHA accumulation process. This could potentially lead to identification of certain organisms or community structures to target for the production of specific PHA types. Furthermore, the quantities of PHAs produced under the different conditions will help us detect the conditions needed to obtain a variety of desirable PHA compositions.</li> <li>Growth kinetic studies would give us information about the effective consumption of substrates, how fast (or slow) the organisms are growing and also how oxygen is being utilized under different conditions. This assessment would give us the insight needed to optimize the biomass yields in a population and provide parameters necessary for a life cycle assessment.</li> </ul><p> </p> <h2>Life Cycle Analysis of Natural Gas as a Feedstock for PHA Production:</h2> <p>This assessment would be the first analysis to quantify the environmental impacts of natural gas as a feedstock for value-added products like PHA. We would focus on the natural gas mixtures that give rise to PHA polymers. The parameters obtained from the laboratory experiments would enable us to identify the environmental viability of the range of PHA products produced from the different natural gas mixtures. Finally, we would compare the results to the impacts of PHAs from agricultural feedstock, and determine areas for long-term improvements.</p> <p> </p> <p>Overall, these studies would provide a basic understanding of the factors vital in creating diversity in microbial communities. All together we would employ very fundamental molecular biology and growth analysis techniques to answer questions in the field of environmental biotechnology and microbial ecology. These answers would benefit research that explores the future of biodegradable plastics and the positive implication of microbial diversity.</p> <p> </p> <h2><i>References</i></h2> <p><a href="http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gwps.html">[1]    US Department of Energy, "Transportation Energy Data Book," 2015.</a></p> <p><a href="http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gwps.html">[2]    US EPA. www3.epa.gov. [Online]. http://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gwps.html</a></p> <p>[3]    Jasna Djonlagic and Marija S. Nikolic, "Biodegradable Polyester: Synthesis and Physical Properties," in A Handbook of Applied Biopolymers Technology: Synthesis, Degradation and Applications, Sanjay K Sharma and Ackmez Mudhoo, Eds. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011.</p> <p>[4]    Bernd H. A. Rehm, "Biogenesis of Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoate Granules: A Platfrom Technology for the Production of Tailor-made Bioparticles," Curr. Issues Mol. Biol, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 41-62, 2007.</p> <p>[5]    S. Philip, T. Keshavarz, and I. Roy, "Review - Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Biodegradable Polymers with a Range of Applications," Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 82, 2007.</p> <p>[6]    Peter De Schryver et al., "Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) Increases Growth Performance and Intestinal Bacterial Range-Weighted Richness in Juvenile European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax," Applied Microbial and Cell Physiology, vol. 86, pp. 1535–1541, January 2010.</p> <p>[7]    Yiying Liu et al., "PHB-degrading Bacteria Isolated from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Aquatic Animals as Protective Actors Against Luminescent vibriosis," FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 74, pp. 196–204, June 2010.</p> <p>[8]    Craig S. Criddle, Sarah L. Billington, and Curtis W. Frank, "Renewable Bioplastics and Biocomposites From Biogas Methane and Waste-Derived Feedstock: Development of Enabling Technology, Life Cycle Assessment, and Analysis of Costs," California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery , Stanford University, Contract 2014.</p> <p>[9]    Allison J. Pieja, Katherine H. Rostkowski, and Craig S. Criddle, "Distribution and Selection of Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate Production Capacity in Methanotrophic Proteobacteria," Microbial Ecology, vol. 62, pp. 564–573, May 2011.</p> <p>[10]    Allison J. Pieja, Eric R. Sundstrom, and Craig S. 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(2013) http://playbook.aga.org/#p=80. [Online]. <a href="https://www.aga.org/about-natural-gas">https://www.aga.org/about-natural-gas</a></p> <p>[20]    Ching-Yee Loo and Kumar Sudesh, "Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Bio-bases Microbial Plastics And Their Properties," Malaysian Polymer Journal, vol. 2, 2007.</p> <p>[21]    Eric Pollet and Luc Averous, "Production, Chemistry and Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoates," in Biopolymers: New Materials for Sustainable Films and Coatings, David Plackett, Ed. Chichester, UK: John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd, 2011.</p> <p>[22]    Ranjana Rai and Ipsita Roy, "Polyhydroxyalkanoates: The Emerging New Green Polymers of Choice," in A Handbook of Applied Biopolymer Technology : Synthesis, Degradation and Applications, Ackmez Mudhoo Sanjay K Sharma, Ed. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Chemistry.</p> <p>[23]    Katherine H. Rostkowski, Craig S. Criddle, and Michael D. Lepech, "Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment for a Cradle-to-Cradle Cycle: Biogas-to-Bioplastic (and Back)," Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 46, p. <a href="tel:9822−9829">9822−9829</a>, 2012 July.</p> <p>[24]    Leda R. Castilho, David A. Mitchell, and Denise M.G. Freire, "Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from waste materials and by-products by submerged and solid-state fermentation," Bioresource Technology, vol. 100, pp. <a href="tel:5996–6009">5996–6009</a>, July 2009.</p> <p>[25]    U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2015, November) eia.gov. [Online]. <a href="http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=23752">http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=23752</a></p> <p>[26]    Richard S. Hanson and Thomas E. Hanson, "Methanotrophic Bacteria," Microbiological Reviews, June 1996.</p> <p>[27]    Jeremy D. Semrau, Alan A. DiSpirito, and Sukhwan Yoon, "Methanotrophs &amp; Copper," Microbiological Reviews, p. 36, March 2010.</p> <p>[28]    Amanda S. Hakemian and Amy C. Rosenzweig, "The Biochemistry of Methane Oxidation," Annual Review of Biochemistry, p. 22, 2007.</p> <p>[29]    Yuri A. Trotsenko and John Colin Murrell, "Metabolic Aspects of Aerobic Obligate Methanotrophy," in Advances in Applied Microbiology., 2008, vol. 63.</p> <p>[30]    Andrew R. Pfluger et al., "Selection of Type I and Type II methanotrophic proteobacteria in a fluidized bed reactor under non-sterile conditions," Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, pp. <a href="tel:9919–9926">9919–9926</a>, August 2011.</p> <p>[31]    Eric Sundstrom and Craig Criddle, "Alternating Ammonium and Nitrate as Nitrogen Sources Selects for Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) - Producing Methanotrophic Communities," 2013, Dissertation Thesis; In preparation for publication.</p> <p>[32]    Bernhard Schink and Alfons J. M. Stams, "Syntrophism among Prokaryotes," in Prokaryotes., 2006.</p> <p>[33]    Adrian Ho et al., "The More, The Merrier: Heterotroph Richness Stimulates Methanotrophic Activity," The ISME Journal, May 2014.</p> <p>[34]    Michiel Stock et al., "Exploration and Prediction of Interactions Between Methanotrophs and Heterotrophs," Research in Microbiology, vol. 164, September 2013.</p> <p>[35]    F. Rojo, "Enzymes for Aerobic Degradation of Alkanes," in Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology, K. N. Timmis, Ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2010, pp. 781-797.</p> <p>[36]    Alexander Wentzel, Trond E. Ellingsen, Hans-Kristian Kotlar, Sergey B. Zotchev, and Mimmi Throne-Holst, "Bacterial Metabolism of Long-chain n-alkanes," Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol. 76, pp. 1209-1221, August 2009.</p> <p>[37]    J.B. van-Beilen, Z. Li, W.A. Duetz, T.H.M. Smits, and B. Witholt, "Diversity of Alkane Hydroxylase Systems in the Environment," Oil &amp; Gas Science and Technology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 427-440, 2003.</p> <p>[38]    Md. Fakruddin and Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin Mannan, "Methods for Analyzing Diversity of Microbial Communities in Natural Environments," Ceylon Journal of Science, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 19-33, March 2013.</p> <p>[39]    Ian R. McDonald, Nina V. Doronina, Yuri A. Trotsenko, Craig McAnulla, and J. Colin Murrell, "Hyphomicrobium chloromethanicum sp. nov. and Methylobacterium chloromethanicum sp. nov., Chloromethane-utilizing bacteria Isolated from a Polluted Environment," International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 51, pp. 119–122, 2001.</p> <p>[40]    Margaret M. Attwood and W Harder, "The Oxidation and Assimilation of C2 Compounds by Hyphomicrobium sp," Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 350-356, 1974.</p> <p>[41]    Christopher J. Marx, Jonathan A. Miller, Ludmila Chistoserdova, and Mary E. Lidstrom, "Multiple Formaldehyde Oxidation/Detoxification Pathways in Burkholderia fungorum LB400," Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 186, no. 7, pp. <a href="tel:2173–2178">2173–2178</a>, December 2003.</p> <p>[42]    P. Kampfer, N. Lodders, and E. Falsen, "Hydrotalea flava gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the phylum Bacteroidetes and allocation of the genera Chitinophaga, Sediminibacterium, Lacibacter, Flavihumibacter, Flavisolibacter, Niabella, Niastella, Segetibacter, Parasegetibacter, Terrimonas, Ferruginibacter, Filimonas and Hydrotalea to the family Chitinophagaceae fam. nov," International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 61, pp. 518–523, 2011.</p> <p>[43] Natural Gas Supply Association. (2014) ngsa.org. [Online]. <a href="http://www.ngsa.org/download/issues/fact-sheets/Methane%2520FINAL%2520one%2520pager%2520Sept%25202014.pdf">http://www.ngsa.org/download</a></p> <p> </p> <img alt="Natural Gas" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a5b8cf4c-a4ad-4542-a087-9d8cb87669a6" height="425" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/FD44FC06-F123-47CF-B108-1F23DF79855F.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /></div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/microbial-degradation-natural-gas-3" data-a2a-title="MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF NATURAL GAS - EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE COMPETING SUBSTRATES - PART 2"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Fmicrobial-degradation-natural-gas-3&amp;title=MICROBIAL%20DEGRADATION%20OF%20NATURAL%20GAS%20-%20EFFECTS%20OF%20MULTIPLE%20COMPETING%20SUBSTRATES%20-%20PART%202"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/environmental-engineering-and-science" hreflang="en">Environmental Engineering and Science</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Sun, 17 Nov 2019 17:07:34 +0000 Wakuna Galega 553 at https://prettygoodpost.org https://prettygoodpost.org/microbial-degradation-natural-gas-3#comments NEUROMARKETING SCIENCE RESEARCH – ADVANTAGES, RISKS AND APPLICATIONS https://prettygoodpost.org/neuromarketing-applications <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">NEUROMARKETING SCIENCE RESEARCH – ADVANTAGES, RISKS AND APPLICATIONS</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/josephine-gilmour" lang="" about="/josephine-gilmour" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">Josephine Gilmour</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Thu, 05/30/2019 - 08:38</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-mt-subheader-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Neuromarketing | Bachelor Thesis | Annotation:</h2> <p>The objective of this bachelor thesis is to define and explain the modern field of marketing studying consumers buying behaviour using present neuroscience techniques. Firstly, the bachelor thesis brings forward the neuromarketing advantages followed by reflection at ethical risks as well, both terms supported with examples. Moreover, the definitive objective is to determine neuropsychological methods and how is the attained knowledge used for marketing purposes. In overall, the bachelor thesis evaluates the effectiveness of neuromarketing and its future potential.</p> <p> </p> <p>Keywords: neuromarketing, brain study, neuro-planning, neuroscience, consumer buying behaviour, buying psychology, merchandising, cognitive process, purchase decision making</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/D3091DB5-B0AF-426E-B56C-21F628048058.jpeg" width="1280" height="850" alt="Neuromarketing" title="Neuromarketing On High Street" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Neuromarketing - Introduction </h2> <p>In a competitive marketplace, customers and consumers will always be at the forefront. Brands are continuously trying to adapt to their needs. With the diversity of languages, and the way of expression varies with each culture and country, the brain language remains the same and versatile, and therefore imaginatively opens the door to the global world. A valuable insight into the issue of securing customer needs is given by neuromarketing - concerning the emergence of marketing; it is still a new branch of neuroscience, psychology and marketing that studies how the human brain responds to advertising stimuli. It translates findings from brain research into the marketing world in order to gain information about consumer needs and preferences. For example, it identifies what processes are the essence of a customer's buying behaviour. Neuromarketing mainly uses medical technologies as well as knowledge of cognitive psychology and marketing principles. The essence of neuromarketing is the research of the human brain and its neurological processes. Thanks to the given brain functions, we can make decisions. Neuromarketing examines the processes underlying this decision-making.</p> <p> </p> <p>Researchers can use scientific methods to measure changes in the activity of specific parts of the brain, thus helping to specify customer preferences better because traditional market research and the answer to "Do you like this product?", may not always be accurate. Classical marketing surveys rely on information that researchers consciously provide to the researchers involved in the research. Throughout its existence, these methods have faced a problem that is essential for marketing - the one who says what one thinks it should be said. Is the information found useful for marketing? If we ask someone to buy a product and answer yes, do we have a guarantee that they will buy it in the future? Many examples show that this is not entirely certain. Moreover, these arguments form the basis of neuromarketing. For example, Morin (2011) claims that taking into account the above, neuromarketing appears to be an exciting methodological alternative.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Neuromarketing Brain Areas" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="51bdb1f5-4009-4f8f-a321-c2183c80bca2" height="331" layout="responsive" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/70D0E2DF-FC69-470A-9AF1-7701A56F4FF8.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p>The bachelor thesis split into the theoretical and practical part; unfortunately, the latter cannot be published in its full extent due to an in effect non-disclosure agreement, protecting valuable proprietary neuromarketing data of a large supply chain. The theoretical part will focus on neuromarketing with its benefits, risks, and ethics, and following chapters are devoted to the nervous system of the individual and then also to the psychology of the emotions associated with the consumer's buying behaviour. An essential theoretical part of the thesis is an overview of the types of neurological research used in neuromarketing. One of the goals of this bachelor thesis is to define and explore neuromarketing from the theoretical point of view, in aim to show the problems of this field on case studies from practice.</p> <p> </p> <p>The aim of this work is also to apply the research of neuromarketing and evaluate its potential contribution to increasing sales performance by examples from practice. This bachelor thesis also partially works with psychological definitions and asks what is possible from the neuropsychological point of view about the consumer and how the brand can learn from it in practice. The goal of any company should not be to maximise profits, but also to develop its market value, and there is currently a "sense" trend behind the brand or idea. The thesis evaluates the effectiveness of selected neuromarketing tools, and the analysis of the media from the neuromarketing point of view, in reflection on their development and potential in the coming years.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <h2>1. Neuromarketing - benefits and risks</h2> <p>According to Zurawicki (2010), the roots of neuromarketing research go back more than fifteen years. At that time, Antonio Damasio found that not only rational reasoning, but above all, emotion, is essential to people in making decisions, and reflected in the brain scan. That was the birth of future marketing, which included Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Medical science has been using MRI since the 1980s, and in comparison to X-ray, MRI is considered harmless. In neuromarketing, so-called fMRI is used, a functional MRI that maps the influx of blood into some regions of the brain in response to stimuli. The basis is the idea that when brain areas processing our 'desires to buy', those areas having an increase in the influx of blood, which is measurable by the fMRI scan. In Zurawicki (2010), "Neuromarketing: Exploring the Brain of the Consumer" states that the decision to buy or not to buy goods or services is made in about 2.5 seconds. First, the visual centre in the cerebral cortex is activated. A fraction of a second later, the brain begins to view the goods from all sides, which activates memory circuits located in the cortex above and behind the left ear. Every marketing expert dreams about the goods making an impression and arouse a shopping desire. The cortex is located in the crown of the head, above and below the right ear. The right part of the brain activated by a 'parietal cortex'. In this way, it is possible to monitor the reaction to different types of goods and then to evaluate them from the records.</p> <p> </p> <p>Neuromarketing is a combination of science and marketing may tend to sound controversial. The reason is that so far, this discipline is not very well known; however, it is developing fast and growing. Neuromarketing is a type of market research activity that uses methods and new insights into neuroscience and psychology. In essence, neuromarketing solves the same problem as other market surveys may aim to resolve, i.e. how the brand should best represent itself and communicating information and values the right way while generating profit. In consideration of the scientific research to date, neuromarketing is bound to continue helping brands addressing these issues better than other types of research. Some people, however, might argue that neuromarketing is a field of influencing people to buy things - often things they do not need - and that it is a dangerous tool.</p> <p> </p> <p>Neuromarketing can monitor, demonstrate, and proof consumers reactions, whether it is the colour of the packaging, a sound, or an idea of buying a product that no one else has. It shows that psychology plays a significant role in neuromarketing science. By finding specific rules and formulas of the human mind, we can try to understand the psychology of brands that contribute significantly to the evolution of neuromarketing. However, it is necessary to look at this field with a critical eye, and consider that some popular publications may give a false picture of neuromarketing and make it into marketing that has figured out where the magic sale button is found in within the human brain. Neuromarketing is not a miracle tool for maximising sales of products or services, nor does it guarantee customer loyalty to the brand. Above all, it is a tool through which a brand can gain a greater understanding of consumer's buying behaviour and improve their marketing strategies.</p> <p> </p> <p>What the recent findings of neuromarketing science research? Thanks to it, we have the opportunity to learn better who our customers are, even at the most basic level, i.e. from the perspective of the brain of the buyer and neurological processes. Neuromarketing can help us to understand better why people want to buy specific products and services, and why they may remain loyal to a particular brand. Neuromarketing captures human behaviour as the manifestation of decision-making, and its research explores how customers feel when shopping and try to understand the human mind in this regard. Genco, Pohlmann and Steidl (2013) argue that neuromarketing consists of at least three essential disciplines that collectively fall into neuroscience, as follows.</p> <p> </p> <p> • Neurology: A study of the human nervous system, including the brain, its anatomy, function, and the peripheral nervous system it controls. Neurology is essential for understanding the brain states and physiological responses that accompany exposure to brands, products, and marketing materials.</p> <p> </p> <p>• Behavioural Economics: A study of how people make economic decisions in the real world. Behavioural economics is the most relevant to understanding the situational effects on consumer choice and behaviour.</p> <p> </p> <p> • Social Psychology: A study of how people think and act (in reality or imagination) in the presence of other people. In recent years, social psychology has focused on the impact of unconscious processes on human activity. The most relevant is to understand how conscious and unconscious brain processes work together to make consumer choices and purchasing behaviour.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <h3>1.1 Main areas of use of neuromarketing</h3> <p>Neuromarketing techniques have numerous applications ranging from designing new products to unifying and integrating ways to communicate with their carriers. In a publication on neuromarketing, Pop and Iorga (2012, p. 640) report a recent study by Ariely and Berns (2010), where they present the most appropriate and commonly used areas for neuromarketing research.</p> <p> </p> <h4>Food and drink design</h4> <p>Taste perception is a complex process that requires the integration of numerous sensory stimuli such as taste, perception of structure, smell and appearance. Neuromarketing tools have proven effective in exploring this complicated process and can be used successfully in designing a new product.</p> <p> </p> <h4>New Building Design Architecture</h4> <p>Measuring brain activity generated by images of different parts of a building or integrating imaging discoveries into the building design process. It is made possible using virtual reality, which allows researchers to create a very accurate building or environment simulations and measure the brain activity of a subject passing through virtual corridors using fMRI.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Neuromarketing Brain Picture" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="3cab54a0-49ce-4538-bb95-909c06d29575" height="360" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/E53ACDEC-1D98-4EAB-BF72-77874A366CA0.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <h4>Film Industry</h4> <p>Studies using fMRI performed on subjects looking at a particular scene from the film have shown that the cortical response to triggers is similar to all participants. This experiment brought about the measurement and exploration of film scenes for practice, and according to the evaluation, to include or exclude them from the final version of the film depending on the registered brain reaction. The same approach applies in the music industry, where fMRI studies can predict future listening to the new music segment.</p> <p> </p> <p>Other areas of applications of neuromarketing research results include; promoting groups of goods (cosmetics, nutrition, food), improving services, designing different categories of advertising materials, websites or managing online stores. Researches can measure or assess, depending on the circumstances, areas affecting emotions, interest, trust, relationship, and loyalty to a product, service, or brand, fear or lack of interest in the product. One of the fundamental questions for retailers is "How do buyers choose their products?" In addition to the apparent rationality of the decision-making process, we know that emotions play an essential role in how and what we choose. Therefore, neuro-marketing is the research between cognitive and emotional knowledge that avoids research into traditional research techniques. (Bratianu, 2011, p. 166).</p> <p class="text-align-right"> </p> <h1>Research Of The Human Brain And Mind</h1> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Brain sections" height="537px" src="/sites/default/files/D1A1E176-BE6B-4BDA-877F-5071C2EEEA33.jpeg" width="746px" class="align-center" /></p> <p> </p> <p>Renvoise (2013) describes the evolution of human brain development that has undergone several phases. The first was the brainstem and the cerebellum that form the inner and most primitive layer. Above all, the brain stem is the part of the brain that oversees such functions as reproduction, self-preservation, blood circulation, breathing, sleep, and muscle contraction in response to external stimuli. The brain stem is found at the top of the spine at the base of the skull. This layer is called "reptilian brain" because all vertebrates have one from reptiles to mammals. This part of the brain that ultimately controls the actions and decisions. Some of the studies also help us understand how consumers decide to buy using subconscious processes and activities that cannot be analysed using traditional marketing research methods. As a result, a brand can use neuromarketing methods to improve its sales and marketing results. </p> <p> </p> <p>How does the human brain decide? First, it is necessary to look at the physiological structure of the brain. In addition to the right and left hemispheres, <strong>the brain divides into three layers that act as separate organs with different cell structures and functions.</strong></p> <p> </p> <h2>Brain Layers</h2> <h3>New brain</h3> <p>This brain thinks. It processes analytical data and shares it with two other brains.</p> <p> </p> <h3>Middle brain</h3> <p>This brain feels. It processes emotions and feelings and also shares its knowledge with the other two brains.</p> <p> </p> <h3>Reptilian brain (Original brain)</h3> <p>This brain decides. It compares the knowledge of both brains but controls the final decision-making process.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <img alt="Brain sections" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="b05901dc-552d-40c5-a0a2-ca68b73ae0e8" height="547px" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/662D8E5F-D97F-4CCD-B73E-1AD7CD0194B8.png" width="960px" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p> </p> <p>In case the original brain decides, the whole of business and marketing strategy should be covered by entirely different principles of communication in order to be active and adapted to this brain structure.</p> <p> </p> <p>Neuroscience consists of various disciplines, including molecular biology, electrophysiology, neurophysiology, anatomy, embryology, developmental psychology, cell biology, neurology, behavioural and cognitive neuropsychology. In this sense, neuroscience brings knowledge about consumer behaviour. To understand consumer buying behaviour and consumer decision, let us start with a general introduction to the nervous system.</p> <p> </p> <p>Pradeep (2010) teaches that the human brain processes sensory perceptions subconsciously. In his opinion, this fact is strange to us because we cannot think about how we think when we are not aware that we are thinking. In his opinion, this finding is undisputed, and in his book The Buying Brain, he refers to other scientific studies in this regard. Most of the day and night activity is our brains below the threshold of our conscious perception. Scientists have tried to express the ratio between conscious and subconscious brain activity. The explanation is in the book of Harvard Professor of Psychology, Timothy Wilson (2002). They claim that our senses are exposed to about 11 million information every single second. Most of it passes through our eyes, but all the other senses contribute to hearing, touch, smell, taste and spatial perception. Our conscious brain - the part that is conscious thinking - can at best handle 40 information per second. Everything else is subconsciously processed. It means that 99.999% of the information is subconsciously processed. No wonder the brain is often a mystery to us. The challenge for brands and marketing is therefore apparent: how to impress on the 40 consciously processed information?</p> <p> </p> <p>The nervous system is the primary control, regulation and communication system of the human body and consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves and nodes. These, in turn, consist of different groups of cells, including nerves, blood, and connective tissue. Through its receptors, the nervous system of a person maintains contact with the external and internal environment. Along with endocrine (hormonal) secretion, the nervous system regulates and controls the body's balance and thus every part of our lives. The different activities of the nervous system are assorted with interrelated functions: sensory, integrative, and emotional. The nervous system also acts as a centre of all mental activity, including thinking, learning and memory. From an anatomical and functional point of view, its two main components are the central nervous system (CNS), consisting of the brain and spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - the nerves.</p> <p> </p> <p>The brain acts as a body communication centre and receives sensory and motor information from its various parts. These signals are processed in different areas of the brain that are classified by function. Consequently, sensory inputs are transmitted to different parts of the locomotive apparatus. Such brain reports produce specific muscle and behavioural patterns. The human brain is the most complex structure that humanity knows. It is therefore not surprising that the systematic study of this body is a complex task in itself. To emphasise the complexity, suffice it to say that the brain contains up to one hundred billion neurones that are interconnected in a far greater number of possible interrelationships. Revealing the anatomy of the brain and its construction provides the basis for a better understanding of our daily functioning, creative processes, or artistic expressions or abilities. The brain is made up of many areas that handle different tasks.</p> <p> </p> <p>The field of neuroanatomy is one that focuses on linking function with brain structure. However, it is important to consider the brain activity comprehensively as the relationship of all its parts. No area of the brain acts alone, even though the main functions of different parts of the brain were yet determined.</p> <p> </p> <p>The forebrain is the most substantial part of the human brain associated with higher brain functions such as the level of thought and action. Outer thin, less than 5 mm, the brain layer is called the cortex. Its dominant part - neocortex, is sometimes referred to as grey matter. This evolutionarily latest design contains six layers of cells filled densely with neurones. It is marked by deep grooves (sulci) and wrinkles (gyri). The folds increase the surface area of the neocortex without too much volume increasing, which facilitates the development of new functional areas responsible for widespread cognitive skills, such as working memory, speech and language. Deeper parts are composed of white matter with some other pockets of grey matter spreading inside. The brain is divided into several folds into four sections (rounded lobes), frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobe. Their general functions can be summarised as follows. The frontal lobe is located in front of the brain in the forehead area and is responsible for planning, organising, managing behaviour, short term memory, problem-solving, creativity and judgment. The occipital lobe, located at the back of the brain, is associated with visual processing. The temporal lobe, near the temples, is associated with perception and auditory stimuli, memory and speech. Also, the temporal lobe contributes to assigning emotional value to stimuli and memories. The cerebral lobe, which is located above the occipital and behind the frontal lobe, is responsible for the integration of sensory information as it relates to spatial orientation; it is associated with motion, location of objects, and relations between numbers.</p> <p> </p> <p>Some scientists, such as Damasio and Craig, have pointed to yet another part. Lobusinsularisor insula - as a particular part of the temporal lobe. This "fifth" lobe lies deep in the brain between the temporal lobe and the lower parietal cortex. This region seems to accept inputs that deal with emotional information, such as pain, temperature, itching, local oxygen status, and touches (Craig, 2009). Furthermore, it transmits information about the administrative areas of the brain. Furthermore, it transmits information to the brain's executive areas. According to Damasia (1996), insula plays a role in mapping the bowels that are associated with emotional experiences and helps to create conscious feelings.</p> <p> </p> <p>Semantic memory refers to knowledge of facts and the world. It is an encyclopaedic type of memory and contains knowledge that does not need to be related to a personal experience. Simple pieces of data and symbols - in the context of this work, for example, brand logo, pricing.</p> <p> </p> <p>Words link to the other areas of the brain in charge of sensory processing or motion control. For example, if we read the verb "kick", it activates not only the brain language but also the areas responsible for foot movement control (Pullvermuller, 2005). Another example is the gesturing of a call.</p> <p> </p> <p>Another way to work with memories is episodic memory. If the memory includes significant personal experiences, it is treated differently. For example, when reflecting on past events such as graduation, we remember that in terms of time and space, concerning our mental state and associated emotions, which is specific to episodic memory. Due to the wealth of data, the memory is context-specific and more vivid.</p> <p> </p> <p>The formation of new episodic memories includes the hippocampus and, more generally, the middle temporal lobe. The prefrontal cortex is also involved in coding new episodic memory because it helps organise information for efficient storage, drawing on its role as a powerful function. In general, episodic memories are distributed throughout the cortical region of the brain, and their subsequent search is due to the frontal cortex. However, space-related memories, such as commuting to work every day, create internal maps that remain in the hippocampus neurones.</p> <p> </p> <p>Together, semantic and episodic memory creates a broader category called specific memory, unlike procedural memory, which consists of acquired skills (such as the ability to dance). The latter memory represents implicit memory because words can not easily express it, nor does it have to be induced by conscious thinking, that is, induced automatically, such as driving a car.</p> <p> </p> <p>Continue to Part 2 - <a href="https://prettygoodpost.org/neuromarketing-research-methods" target="_blank">NEUROMARKETING RESEARCH METHODS &amp; ETHICS</a></p> <p class="text-align-right"> </p> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/neuromarketing-applications" data-a2a-title="NEUROMARKETING SCIENCE RESEARCH – ADVANTAGES, RISKS AND APPLICATIONS"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Fneuromarketing-applications&amp;title=NEUROMARKETING%20SCIENCE%20RESEARCH%20%E2%80%93%20ADVANTAGES%2C%20RISKS%20AND%20APPLICATIONS"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span><div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <h3 class="field__label">Tags</h3> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Academic</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/neuromarketing" hreflang="en">Neuromarketing</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 30 May 2019 12:38:21 +0000 Josephine Gilmour 586 at https://prettygoodpost.org DISCUSSING THE WISDOM OF BUDDHISM AND ENLIGHTENMENT https://prettygoodpost.org/wisdom-buddhism-enlightenment <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">DISCUSSING THE WISDOM OF BUDDHISM AND ENLIGHTENMENT</span> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-banner-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/939925A5-3847-4B92-BEEE-9E00C6ACFB42.jpeg" width="1920" height="1280" alt="Buddhism Palace" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/josephine-gilmour" lang="" about="/josephine-gilmour" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">Josephine Gilmour</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 05/29/2019 - 10:21</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-mt-subheader-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Buddhism Introduction</h2> <p>Buddha's teachings, known over than 2,500 years, contain significant wisdom of a man who has devoted his life to knowledge. The term Buddhism is written in European chronicles quite briefly.  Only in the early 19th century was Siddhartha Gautama's teaching of Buddha, which was first named and defined as so-called Buddhism, thereby creating a religion in society that currently has over 300 million people, making it the fourth largest on Earth.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/71F9ECBE-3823-4C56-AF61-7EBBAD6ECCFC.jpeg" width="1280" height="853" alt="Buddhism Ancient Art" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Buddhism - Faith or Philosophy?</h2> <p>Buddhism is often, and ought not to be, confused with faith, as unlike religion, it builds on experience, experience and self-knowledge, not on faith based on spiritual conviction rather than proof.  One who can bring the awareness into being, one awakens and attains enlightenment and wisdom, just as the Buddha did. The label 'religion' in association with Buddhism is not therefore entirely accurate, as it may cause a misinterpretation of the true essence of the Buddha's teachings and can create an image of faith in one particular God and in result propel the observance of dogmas associated with religious beliefs, from which the Buddha's teachings could not be further apart. For a Buddhist, the idea of ​a God Creator is unrealistic, it is therefore more appropriate to understand Buddha's teachings as a spiritual journey which gives the emergence of wisdom of one teaching accepting . Buddhism uses contradictions to show what is timeless, unmanifested, it, that recognises external and internal worlds - that is, the very same life and via its perceptive mind itself.</p> <p> </p> <p>On his journey, Indian prince Siddhartha Gautama was challenged with many hardships, that later in life became the source of his life awakening.  From his birth, everything suggested that he would succeed to the throne from his father and continue the royal tradition of the Shakya clan.  The prince since his youth was surrounded by luxury, which also was the contribution factor in his decision giving up everything and embarking on a pilgrimage of understanding life. At age of 29, he left everything behind, including his family, wife and child behind with intent to free himself and all people from suffering. Witnessing all the suffering around him, he realised that having a constant of exposure to suffering, and he never can be truly free unless leaving the endless cycle of it.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="88cd47d3-9343-4492-989f-43b05fc0deab" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/0627C299-C671-44F0-8660-E8610C4CBA8F.jpeg" height="426" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p>There is a story telling how the Buddha met an ascetic of a wanderer who convinced him that the way out of the cycle of suffering is possible.  He began to follow various teachers, wandered  with the fakirs, but in the end finding only disappointment and therefore began to make his own way.</p> <p> </p> <p>On his long path of deep meditation, one day he sat at a tree in Bodhgaya, it came upon him what is referred  to as enlightenment, awakening or awareness.  Suddenly, he could recall his past lives  and past lives of others.  He described that man rebirths according to his actions, thinking and speech.  According to him, the cause of rebirth was human desires and that is why one lives in the constant cycle of life and death.</p> <p> </p> <p>In early days of his realisation, he described all his knowledge as The Four Noble Truths and in course of his lifetime of another 45 yeas he passed on and explained his teaching (Sasana) to others.  After his death, Buddha's disciples recorded his teachings for future generations. Buddhism has become one of the main religions in India, and further it has spread throughout all Asia taking many forms influenced by a variety of different Asian cultures.  At present, Dalai Lama, the Tibetan leader, is the most renowned teacher of Buddhism.</p> <p> </p> <h2>The Core Of The Buddha's Teachings - Acceptance &amp; End Of Suffering</h2> <h3> Liberation from suffering</h3> <p>The Buddha's teaching builds on the effort to break free from the constant cycle of dying and rebirth. The cyclical nature of the universe is connected with the transience of all things and situations.  This truth is the core of Buddha's teaching.  Everything is temporary and transience is the basic feature of everything. It is only by realisation (by liberation from the unconscious, sleep, or dreaming) that one can get out of the vicious circle.  It follows that, in order to be satisfied, one must leave behind the transient in order to realise that attachments to material objects, and also ones thoughts, causes a misalignment with the true-self.</p> <p> </p> <p> Everything in this world of change and confusion in the cycle of individual rebirths accompanied by suffering (duhkha).  The opposite is "sukha", which means "pleasant" or "sweet", so we can "duhkha" translate the word "sour".  It sours because we have kept it for a long time, just as we keep 'sourness' in our lives.</p> <img alt="Buddhism Art" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="74b1167b-c654-4fbc-b4c3-7ac17edd154a" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/2921FE86-3A4C-4DDF-A141-09A1DD2F7738.jpeg" height="480" width="640" class="align-center" /><h3>Personal experience</h3> <p> A person who only thinks about things cannot get to the true nature of matters and is trapped in the maze of his thoughts and illusions. Since everyone has different thoughts and different views of the world, he is constantly in conflict with others, e.g. even though everyone sees the same thing each describes it differently.  This leads to countless interpretations of reality and promotes illusions of the truth. The essence of truth is a personal experience, Buddha believed.  Particularly well-known form of Buddhism, Zen Buddhism, teaches that explaining Buddhism verbally is a waste of time. Buddha only gave his statements as a means to his own path of knowledge and awareness.  He compared them with a raft that only serves a transportation purpose across a river, but it has no purpose of its own. Buddha also taught that it is not advisable to blindly accept views of others, but to infer whether the claim reasonably resonates internally with them.</p> <p> </p> <h3>The Illusion Of 'I' And The Path To Awakening</h3> <p> The essence of suffering is the illusion of phenomenas, things, or situations that have a common transience.  The cycle of illusory existence is distressful.  Abandoning this cycle is called "nirvana" - it is another foundation of Buddha's teachings and, above all, the Buddhist life goal.  According to Buddha, the "Illusory Self" is in the conviction of a man that he is nothing but a material body and a mind.  The Buddha sees this as a common fundamental error. We can call the illusory belief a dualism in which human minds are still anchored. In three characteristics of all existence (trilakkhana), which is anatman, impermanence and Dukkha, anatman is translated as "No-Self" defining there is no real human-self, due to the impermanence and endless shared cycle of suffering.</p> <p> </p> <h3>Can Enlightenment / Awareness Be Expressed Verbally?</h3> <p>Enlightenment (sanskrit bodhi) can be defined as state of existence, purified of all deception and while in full awareness of all qualities.</p> <p> </p> <p>An excerpt from the book The Power of Now by Eckhart Tolle's spiritual leader can bring us closer to the start of enlightenment.  In particular, Eckhart explains what is or is not an enlightenment as according to the Buddha:</p> <p><em>"I love the Buddha's simple definition of enlightenment as "the end of suffering." There is nothing superhuman in that, is there? Of course, as a definition, it is incomplete. It only tells you what enlightenment is not: no suffering. But what's left when there is no more suffering? The Buddha is silent on that, and his silence implies that you'll have to find out for yourself. He uses a negative definition so that the mind cannot make it into something to believe in or into a superhuman accomplishment, a goal that is impossible for you to attain. Despite this precaution, the majority of Buddhists still believe that enlightenment is for the Buddha, not for them, at least not in this lifetime."</em></p> <p class="text-align-right"><em>"--Eckhart Tolle"</em></p> <p> </p> <p class="text-align-center"><iframe allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/n3Rj-1_V4cg" width="560"></iframe></p> <p> </p> <p>So what happens when suffering disappears? How do we know that suffering has gone? With certainty, we will not have to ask these questions, if we know, there are no more questions. In that moment we awoke in awareness and enlightenment.</p> <p> </p> <div>Continue to part 2 <a href="https://prettygoodpost.org/four-noble-truths-buddhism">DISCUSSING THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS OF BUDDHISM</a></div> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/wisdom-buddhism-enlightenment" data-a2a-title="DISCUSSING THE WISDOM OF BUDDHISM AND ENLIGHTENMENT"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Fwisdom-buddhism-enlightenment&amp;title=DISCUSSING%20THE%20WISDOM%20OF%20BUDDHISM%20AND%20ENLIGHTENMENT"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/philosophy" hreflang="en">Philosophy</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Wed, 29 May 2019 14:21:00 +0000 Josephine Gilmour 583 at https://prettygoodpost.org NEUROMARKETING BRAIN RESEARCH METHODS & ETHICS https://prettygoodpost.org/neuromarketing-brain-research-methods <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">NEUROMARKETING BRAIN RESEARCH METHODS &amp; ETHICS</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/josephine-gilmour" lang="" about="/josephine-gilmour" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">Josephine Gilmour</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sun, 06/09/2019 - 11:08</span> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/36B36701-BB6E-48E5-9486-D1CA5A645B37.jpeg" width="1280" height="410" alt="Neuromarketing Brain Research Illustrative Image" title="Neuromarketing Brain Research" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div>Return to part 1 - <a href="https://prettygoodpost.org/neuromarketing-research-methods">NEUROMARKETING SCIENCE RESEARCH – ADVANTAGES, RISKS AND APPLICATIONS </a></div> <h2>Neuromarketing Brain Research Methods</h2> <p>In neuromarketing research, brain scientists use medical technologies that are otherwise applied in a variety of diagnostic procedures. According to (Zurawicki, 2010, 43, 44), magnetic resonance (MRI) in neuromarketing has proven to be a safer and more precise method than X-ray, also because it is not only limited to brain analysis. Images are obtained using a combination of a strong magnetic field and radio waves. Their interaction creates weak radio signals, yet reflect the intimate details of the brain structure. During the examination, the patient lies on a bed with a head surrounded by a giant magnet that causes the atom particles - protons - to coincide with the magnetic field inside the brain.</p> <p>Consequently, a group of radio waves is sent to the brain of the patient.  A portion of that energy is absorbed by the protons, bringing them out of balance. Protons are gradually moved and emit radio waves. These waves are received by the monitoring device and sent to a computer that produces the resulting brain image. For the reason that different parts of the brain emit slightly different radio signals depending, amongst other factors, on local water and fat content, the computer is able to distinguish one brain structure from another. Once, to some extent more effective, the MRI variation is a "diffusion tensor" (DT) that tracks the movement of water molecules along the cell membrane (for example, brain axons). DT-MRI scanning generates much more data than ordinary MRI and allows different crosses of tracked structures.</p> <p>Furthermore, according to Zurawicki (2010, 44–46), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the product and continuation of MRI. Its concept is based on a conventional MRI scanner but takes into account two other facts. First, the blood contains iron, which is part of the haemoglobin that carries oxygen in the red blood cells. Iron atoms that are not bound to oxygen, deoxyhemoglobin, produce little disruption around their magnetic field. The second essential fact behind fMRI is the physiological principle, which whenever a part of the brain becomes active, the small blood vessels in that localized region spread and more blood flows to that location. Thus, blood is also needed to provide additional oxygen and fuel (glucose) for active brain cells. If there is an ample supply of freshly oxygenated blood to the activated part of the brain, the amount of deoxyhemoglobin is reduced. This, in turn, creates a small change in the magnetic field in the active zone. The fMRI scanner can detect this change and highlight activated brain regions. For example,  a patient when exposed to a flash of light, the visual cortex of the brain is activated. It stimulates an increase in blood flow in the area, resulting in a change in the MRI signal. On the computer screen, it appears in colour versus the brain contrasted in conventional grayscale. The signal is often called a "BOLD" signal, an acronym for "Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Signal", a signal that is derived depends on the level of oxygenation in the area.</p> <p>fMRI examines the entire brain in specific tests while exposed to stimuli when searching for active zones. A series of scans are taken every 2–5 seconds and the results are mapped in particular areas. The final output shows different parts of the brain in the individual layers and observes the inflow of blood into those examined areas where the interest of the subject is evoked. Research using MRI and fMRI allows penetrating more profound than just the surface of the brain structure. Therefore, the use of MRI and fMRI has contributed to numerous significant findings concerning the subcortical area. An essential advantage of fMRI is that it allows for almost continuous monitoring of the brain activity of the subjects being examined while they perform different tasks. The results obtained can be compared with the examination of a person who is in a calm state.</p> <p>Another technology relevant to neuromarketing research is the electroencephalogram (EEG), whose first use is the diagnosis of central nervous system activity. Signals are transmitted between neurons by changes in electrical voltage. These changes are recorded by the electrodes located on the head surface of the person being examined. Electric potentials arise from brain activity. Each part of the brain tells and responds differently to certain stimuli. How is EEG used in the practice of neuromarketing? EEG is easy to perform from any location. It allows researchers to measure the response of a subject in a selected environment, whether it is a cinema, department store or a 30-second commercial spot in a break between thirds of a hockey match. Changes in the electrical activity of the brain can be interpreted to see if the subject is experiencing emotional reactions or simply not paying attention. Compare the results of the EEG with the standard questionnaire. The consumer, when asked if he liked the 30-second advertising spot, will answer yes, but we can learn more from the EEG. The EEG may reveal that the same consumer was closely involved for the first ten seconds, lost interest in the next ten seconds, and reacted significantly again in the last ten seconds. The questionnaire only answers 'yes' because it is a summary of his impression of a particular spot. Therefore a question arises, what is the lesson for such marketing communication in terms of neuromarketing research? Focus on the middle ten seconds to create a communication that will act on the viewer.</p> <p>Eye Tracking means tracking eye movement and is a useful way to analyze behaviour and cognition. The device is focused on the right direction and target of the eye view (point of interest), as well as on the pupil's extension and head movement. Various techniques for measuring eye movement are used, so far, the most used techniques with a video recording of the viewer are the stimulus. (Zurawicki, 2010, 51). The more demanding device also automatically monitors the head position in three-dimensional relation to the camera. The method of eye-tracking by tracking micro movements may indicate focus, the point at which the eye will remain for a while, and may differentiate different types of behaviour. The output of this research is that maps are so-called heatmaps. The points the user looks at for the longest are usually highlighted in red or dots if the point sequence is specific.<br />  </p> <img alt="Neuromarketing Brain Research IKEA" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="e9214934-4c68-4ea8-8bf5-5967d962e065" height="338" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/762CD485-0C13-4AED-8B81-4A9A45942413.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p><strong>Picture no. 1 Sample of Eye Tracking method - sequence of points</strong></p> <p>Source: LUU, Antoine. IKEA eye-tracking at <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCf3L4pUpOg">https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCf3L4pUpOg</a></p> <p> </p> <p>According to Zurawicki (2010, 51), eye movement can be divided into two categories: fixation and oscillation. Fixing occurs when the eye movement stops at a particular position; oscillation is a quick switch to another point. The fixation ranges from about 200 ms when reading a text to 350 ms while the scene is displayed and moving the view (oscillation) to the new destination takes about 200 ms. The resulting series of fixations and oscillations is called a map. These maps are used to analyze visual perception, cognitive intent and interests and deflections. Besides, some elements of eye movement examination, such as pupil extension, are believed to provide more accurate levels of interest than similar measurements of galvanic skin resistance. Pupil expansion and quick blinking of the eye also affect the overall image processing. However, none of these reactions provides a positive or negative perception of the subject of interest. The limitations of this methodology are common to biometric approaches. Biometric methods show what stimuli the user responds to, how they feel, at what moments his cognitive brain activity affects back-up information, and on what responses he responds to in contact with external stimuli. They are, therefore, one of the ways to more in-depth knowledge and anticipation of consumer behaviour. For example, compared to questionnaires and their real value, biometric tests, assuming correct interpretation, can be much more accurate as they eliminate distortions arising from customer conscious declarations affected by ego's ego. In other words, what a customer feels and acts do not have to correspond to what he realizes and what he confesses in polling-based surveys.</p> <p> </p> <p>The Eye Tracking method is used for both online and offline advertising and generally focuses on ranking layouts - website or department store layout, navigation and visuals overall, ad layouts, whether on a website or at a specific point of sale. Using this method, we can also evaluate the appearance of promotional materials from web presentations to print material or packaging design. When it comes to evaluation at the point of sale, we examine the impact of sales tools such as shelves and goods placement, merchandise display and additional graphical presentations.</p> <p> </p> <p>Given the advantages and disadvantages of the neuromarketing research methods mentioned above, combining at least some of them may, depending on the nature of the task, produce better results than when only one method is applied. If according to Zurawicki (2010, 53), several methods are carried out simultaneously, this leads to measurement efficiency.</p> <p> </p> <h2>2.2 Ethics Of Neuromarketing Application</h2> <p>It is clear there is a sensitive issue when it comes to neuromarketing, that is its ethical character. The responses that come as associations in protecting consumers' rights using imaging techniques and other tools of the same nature to investigate buyer behaviour have not taken too long. Iorga and Pop (2012, p. 641) argue that neuromarketing techniques can undoubtedly be manipulative. However, we need to clarify the importance of this manipulation. Manipulation is defined as a decision based on the psychological influence of a group of people, communities, a crowd of people to act against their interests and thus presented as a means of convincingly inducing someone else's interests. It is necessary to discuss the positive or negative sign of manipulation. The customer in question can at least partially clarify the positive or negative sense of manipulation.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Neuromarketing Brain Research Illustration" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="0a09b15b-cebe-4e75-84e1-cc86fa7cd645" height="377" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/7FA1FAB5-B715-4E71-A5FA-291E46099EA4.png" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p>If we look at the issue of ethics in the example of a book or film that aims to expand its audience, neuromarketing techniques encourage the human brain to stimulate reading, monitoring, or hearing. Cognitive ergonomics (Georges and Badoc, 2010, p. 32) and experts in the field can create a favourable environment for the human brain to be fully trained. Among the rules for manipulating the human brain of the reader or viewer (Georges and Badoc, 2010, p. 201):</p> <p> </p> <ul><li>affect the fear of the reader or viewer</li> <li>managing the order of information provided to the viewer or reader and obtaining information</li> <li>in front of the character, first knowing something that still has to figure the character</li> <li>influence the memory of the reader or viewer so that the story does not end before acceptance</li> <li>elements of the future sequence</li> <li>influence reader or viewer decisions</li> </ul><p> </p> <p>Neuromarketing research methods positively affect the human brain and seek to build both buyer and consumer loyalty, but in a new way to engage the other to become a research partner. In order to better understand the potential ethical dilemmas that can be derived from the use of neuromarketing research and the consequences of these ethical decisions, it is necessary to understand the cases where the dilemma is apparent. According to Flores, Baruca and Saldivara (2014), some critics claim that the consumer's free, logical and informed decisions are threatened. The corner-stone of neuromarketing research is trying to uncover the subjects' personality, which is a private matter. Other scientists Genco, Pohlmann and Steidl (2013) report the basic elements we look at in this issue:</p> <p> </p> <ul><li>Protection of research entities</li> <li>Protecting the population of vulnerable specialists from marketing use</li> <li>Full disclosure of objectives, risks and benefits</li> <li>Specifically used media marketing representations</li> </ul><p> </p> <h2>3. Psychological Aspects Of Neuromarketing</h2> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Neuromarketing" height="437" src="/sites/default/files/E19452DD-CD46-4EAC-B6AE-C45DF9C649FD.jpeg" width="640" /></p> <p> </p> <h3>3.1 How consumer emotions and moods affect buying behaviour</h3> <p>Let us assume that people do not make rational decisions. For example, František Koukolík, a Czech scientist in the field of neuropathology, suggests that a man behaves irrationally and is subject to suggestions because he is influenced by an amount of information that can only be constructs of the human mind and evidenced that emotions take precedence over rational thinking while shopping. Rational thinking about the price or benefits of a particular product is a mere illusion of the human mind. American neurologist Antonio Damasio adds that the original trigger, the reason we choose to buy a product, is an unconscious emotion. Even unconscious emotions manifest themselves in the human body in some way, and the medical technologies of neuromarketing research can recognize and measure these manifestations. The emotional side is significant for events that have a robust, effective part. According to Damasia, there are two types of linking emotions and memory:</p> <p> </p> <p><strong> 1. People remember certain emotions associated with particular circumstances. Sometimes emotions are more memorable than the events themselves - for example, if we are uncomfortable with no apparent cause. It means that people create simple automatic affective responses that can drive fast responses when fully developed, conscious and familiar emotional responses (along with physiological manifestations) occur. It also suggests that the processing of emotional information and conscious emotional experience can take place in different parts of the brain (Winkielman et al., 2007).</strong></p> <p><strong>2. Emotions illustrate and at the same time, strengthen the perceptions and memories of the outside world.</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>In a sense, both aspects complement each other. Emotional memories evoke a strong unconscious physiological response. Damasio (Damasio, 1996) hypothesized that a combination of physical affective states that can be stored in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during the event and maybe physiologically revived in the future when similar circumstances are detected.</p> <p> </p> <p>Also, dramatic events connect different areas of the brain compared to ordinary memories. The interaction between amygdala in the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex increases the memory-emotion connection, and amygdala retains a substantial part of emotional memory. As a result of the significant relationship between emotional activity and memory, memory is greatly enhanced (Dolcos et al., 2004). It is even possible that some regions in the middle temporal lobe are specialized for differentiation of neutral vs emotional information.</p> <p> </p> <p>The difference between a rational and emotional style of customer behaviour has a long tradition as a division into two appropriate theories — many studies on the relative importance of enjoyment vs product performance. Okada (2005) suggested that buying "entertainment products" often requires strong justification to overcome the potential onset of guilt. In a series of lab experiments, entertainment electronics (such as DVD players) have gained higher values of these feelings than the separately presented utility items (kitchen electronics). If the customer is faced with the "either-that-or-that" utilitarian alternative, i.e. more practical, then it is more likely that the customer chooses for its benefits.</p> <p> </p> <p>Interest in justifying purchase has different impacts on the purchasing strategy of both categories. According to Zurawicki (2010), if the customer has the benefit of the purchased item, there is a higher likelihood of getting the consumer to spend more time looking for the best solution (Okada 2005). Sellers also offer convenient product packages. According to this model, on the one hand, the package includes functional elements, appealing to measurable and easily verifiable and, on the other hand, attributes that are pleasure-oriented. In this context, some hypotheses suggest that a functional type of purchase produces a sense of satisfaction and a sense of pleasure comes into being at a hedonistic purchase (Chitturi et al., 2008).</p> <p> </p> <p> Based on surveys and observations, market researchers have tried to find out which items are being bought more reliant on consumer emotional attitudes, as opposed to adopting a logical, rational attitude (Chaudhuri, 2006). Not surprisingly, art objects are made based on emotions, but, interestingly, the same is valid for buying a family home - which is the most expensive item they buy in their lives (Ben-Shahar, 2007).</p> <p> </p> <p>Neuromarketing offers a new perspective on this issue. Appealing is the use of brain imaging techniques to assess the degree of positive emotions induced by product feel. Since "satisfaction" and "pleasure" can be in the same plane as the transition from tranquillity to ecstasy, the difference between these two results could neurologically be interpreted as the distance between less and more intense manifestations of the same kind of emotion. Besides, the technical difference between enjoyment and utility may prove less significant. Possibility of moving from one category to another is potentially more common than it might seem. For example, a beneficial braking system and fast acceleration are not only performance measures but also a source of driver feelings about driving control and even safety.</p> <p> </p> <p> Another important aspect is the heterogeneous impression of the consumer in evaluating the tangible element of product functionality, as opposed to evaluating the product's ability to bring joy. The urge to buy a valuable product or service works in the opposite direction to procrastination to buy, resulting from the need to justify perceived luxury. Emotional as opposed to a rational evaluation of what to buy and use is not only a function of those products but is also driven by personality traits. Consequently, different individual character traits likely tend to one or the other type, regardless of the nature of the product to buy.</p> <p> </p> <p>The terms mood and emotion are sometimes confused, but they do not mean the same thing. Moods are transient states not bound to a particular event or object and last longer and less intense than emotions. They are also part of the influences that have the disposition to change the consumer's opinion and mood on a particular service or product.</p> <p> </p> <p>People often say, "I am not in my skin today ..." The important thing is that people are aware of their changing mood, though they do not always know the cause. For ease of interest, it is reasonable to assume that most average individuals have a "normal" mood. In terms of environmental change, mood swings are the rule rather than the exception. Suppose a consumer just bought a new ski gear. One may expect the mood to be positive and willing to go downhill to test the equipment. Also, if the skis are delivered on time, there is a possibility that the consumer will want to try their new skis and enjoy the ski slope. What if his impression of the new equipment was negative? Would there be less likely that consumers would buy a full season skiing ticket?</p> <p> </p> <p>Finally, in extreme but not so rare cases, the mood concept helps to understand why people act against their interests, including buying and consuming different products or services, knowing that what they do is not beneficial.</p> <p> </p> <p>According to Zurawicki (2010, 92), moods are influenced by the weather, the changing seasons, the foods we eat, the amount of sleep, physical exertion, the interaction with other people, and many other aspects of everyday life. These factors are crucial for marketing managers. The extensive literature on the influence of the business environment (in the shop or on the internet) for the duration of the store visit provides evidence of how pleasant the smell, the kind of background music, the arrangement of the arrangement and the decoration positively affects the tendency to spend money. Given what is known about the friendliness of various sensory experiences (as described above in this chapter), it is not surprising that traders and behavioural research pay attention to these issues. A large number of publications also address the link between the in-store components and the online environment, which deserves a separate chapter.</p> <p> </p> <p>It is necessary to emphasize the less explored but interesting idea of the role of physical restraint of the consumer in exposing a wide choice between goods in a shop. Interpreted and recently confirmed by Levav and Zhu (2009), as a defensive response in an attempt to gain personal freedom, it refers to the spatial restriction or crowd pushing in the shop how a chain of nerve events leads to greater comfort through the need for diverse shopping habits. On the one hand, fear and anger, as claustrophobic reactions play a role. On the other hand, these phenomena seem to contribute to indecision.</p> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Neuromarketing" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="2958bb41-8c78-462b-ac4f-81aa0493c7ad" height="437" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/43C566B4-1FD0-4159-9C4C-E4B8F458F361.jpeg" width="640" /></p> <p> </p> <h2>3.2 Brand, Branding And Its Sense In Neuromarketing</h2> <p>The brand includes a name, logo, slogan, design and overall identity, and at the same time, how customers perceive services and products, or what kind of brand they have. A brand that wants to become a brand should have some meaning, credibility and memorability. Consumers create specific associations and expectations with the brand, and neuromarketing focuses on this.</p> <p> </p> <p>In his publication Unconscious Branding, Douglas Praet (2012, p. 48) mentions mirror neurons and points out the discovery of Professor Rizzolatti, who, with his team of scientists, has mirrored neuronal neurons for the first time in monkeys of kind Macac Nemestrina tested on active neurons while given food. When one of the scientists entered a room with a cone of ice cream in his hand, increased brain activity was recorded in places that corresponded to the control of hand movement. Thus, nerve activity was recorded in places as if the monkey itself held that cone in hand. What does this finding contribute to and what connection does it have with the brand? The discovery of the concept of mirror neurons points to the fact that we can empathize with others, understand their intentions, or have the ability to empathize. Reflecting the observed events from the perspective of neuromarketing means that I can feel lucky to buy a new mobile because a friend bought it a week ago and is happy with it. Only the idea of a particular brand can simulate beliefs in the brain and be a "gateway to happiness" in the transcribed sense, which may prove why some brands are memorable and vice versa. What is the similarity of religion and loyalty or "worship" of the brand? They have common pillars such as a sense of belonging, vision or thought, power over enemies, action on the senses, storytelling, symbols, rituals, spreading the faith.</p> <p> </p> <h2>4. Practical use of Neuromarketing</h2> <p><img alt="Neuromarketing" height="437" src="/sites/default/files/A57948C2-4D8A-43C6-9176-AF7BAABF6637.jpeg" width="640" /></p> <p>Pradeep (2010) in the book mentioned above, gives much information about the brain, and also about the EEG method at the point of sale, which helps to understand the consumer's purchasing decision. For example, we learn that the consumer's brain is delighted with the novelty, does not like straight lines and sharp angles, and prefers natural textures to artificial ones. According to this statement, traders, designers and professionals who plan to deploy a business can use neuromarketing knowledge to develop a competitive advantage and brand. This department store group can thus create a business space with a new design, innovative merchandise display, good lighting, underscoring music, emphasizing curves, avoiding sharp lines.</p> <p> </p> <p>As Pradeep (2010) says - the visual elements at the point of sale have the most significant influence on customers, as almost all of the five human senses are used by almost 70%, and we naturally ranked first in the hierarchy. However, sight takes place in the brain, which makes sense for all colours, shapes, facial expressions and environments. Concerning the use of neuromarketing knowledge in this regard in the sales area, Pradeep's "cathedral effect" theory (2010, p. 45), which says that if we enter the cathedral, intuitively our eyes are heading towards its ceiling. Therefore, when placing essential information for us, we place it in a natural place for the customer - that is, the top part.</p> <p> </p> <p>However, how does the customer move and feel in the sales area? Praet (2010, p. 171) controversially compares the state of the human brain when buying in a shop to a situation 100,000 years ago, when certain areas of the brain react in a similar way as when our ancestors felt threatened. According to him, a sharp end of a supermarket shelf can cause the same threat in practice. Although it seems funny to today's world, it can be perceived as a potential danger at the level of processes in the brain. Subconsciously, this fact is evaluated by the brain as a threat. The customer, therefore, may tend to leave this situation as soon as possible. The brain is focused, for a thousand years of evolution to protect itself from the dangers around it. The sharp corner of the street or the kitchen represents the same threat, the brain reacts instantly and avoids it subconsciously. What other circumstances does the customer have when moving between shelves in a store? Summary research results described in Buying Brain (Praet, 2010, p. 173) describe the so-called customer experience framework that determines and compares the quality of shopping experiences in the retail environment. Studies across different categories and retailers have revealed standard features that are integrated into this framework to analyze purchasing experience. This framework consists of seven points that cover the entire purchasing process. EEG and other neuromarketing methods were used in the measurement.</p> <p> </p> <p>These frameworks are born from the analysis of thousands of brands, products, designs, pricing mechanisms, packages, Point-of-Sale (POS) elements in-store, web, TV commercials, print ads, Internet advertising and more.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Customer Experience Frameworks</h2> <h3>1. Information</h3> <p>Customer must find relevant product or service information. The information is closely linked to the product's availability, an essential benchmark in evaluation. In this regard, attention, memory, awareness is explored. It is useful for measuring deep subconsciousness in response to the following major categories: find-ability, ease, discovery and pleasure.</p> <p> </p> <h3>2. Environment</h3> <p>This framework relates to the physical context of the shopping experience. It contains more senses and provides many opportunities to set the consumer in the right mood, purchase motivation and introduce products that touch their current life situation. These include attention, emotion, memory, the intention of purchase, and novelty. As the Praet (2010) study suggests, an environment that mimics the consumer's natural environment, it encourages him to try out the product and possibly create an intention to purchase the product, as opposed to a non-customized environment. Various display techniques serve different purposes in different locations in the store. The end of the shopping aisle is first of all attentive, while the presentation of new products is more likely to arouse interest if they are displayed at the entrance of the department store.</p> <p> </p> <h3>3. Entertainment</h3> <p>Nowadays, fun while shopping is seen as an advantage of modern times. The combination of shopping, which more or less compares the brain to hunting or gathering food, and entertainment is compelling. That is why shopping has become a modern family hobby. Thus, shopping is often similar to taking on a mixture of numbers and words for the subconscious. This amount of information can be effectively navigated through emotional stimuli that guide shoppers through entertainment. Entertainment provides emotional relief, minimizes the pain of buying and increases overall shopping time.</p> <p> </p> <h3>4. Education</h3> <p>Emphasizing the product's educational value, or information that explains something to the consumer is handled differently in the brain than purely entertaining displays. Facts and educational value displays are more rationally processed by the brain, making customers more likely to buy a product from a logical perspective. Consumers are more involved in price comparisons than when they are exposed without this intention.</p> <p> </p> <h3>5. Simplicity</h3> <p>Simplicity improves the shopping experience. Whether it is the primary purpose of a product or service in the first place, finding more information, making purchasing experience more efficient, transporting goods to the house or opening the package, simplicity must be an essential element of the consumer experience.</p> <p> </p> <h3>6. Social value</h3> <p>Social value is based on the experience in which customers, post-purchase, have a good feeling because they can contribute. Our brains are tightly connected to balance our individual and group needs. Personal value and social value helps us cope with spending money. Purchases where a percentage of the total amount is donated, for example, to charity, with a choice for the customer, increase the sense of social value. In one study, Praet (2010, p. 179) tested the effect of buying with a donation for the charity at the point of purchase. Consumers were asked to choose one of the four kinds of charities that they thought would deserve a percentage of the total purchase. He found that this simple gesture led to an increase in emotional engagement, as well as a much higher value of responses to stimuli in the deep subconscious for words about "pleasure" or "satisfaction" associated with shopping.</p> <p> </p> <h3>7. Company</h3> <p>People have a need to belong. It can be a reading club, a club of people who like to travel, or a group of people who are loyal customers of a particular brand. Whatever it is, people need to be part of a community. As far as hunters and gatherers are concerned, the community has helped ensure basic survival. As we have developed, the conscious and subconscious benefits of the community have become less evident, but still highly valued, and therefore consistently sought after: friendship, personal fulfilment, everyday cultural experiences, etcetera. Similarly, it is so with brand evoking a feeling of belonging to a community.</p> <p> </p> <p>​<img alt="Customer Flow" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6a7a7917-6c8d-4120-bceb-e9922c6a7262" height="477" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/2BCF01D6-505D-47FB-85C7-A82A30F26E83.jpeg" width="640" /></p> <p> </p> <h2>4.1 Neuromarketing and Customer Flow</h2> <p>To be successful, a company needs to know its customers. It goes hand in hand with understanding the department store layout or customer flow information. As customers move and shop at the shopping mall, the customer flow can be monitored. The issue can be a useful tool for the actual discovery of the current situation or a tool that will help the department store understand the customer's preferences concerning what they see, which paths they move, and which media will attract them. Customer flow analysis delivers materials to learn how to improve the store's conditions and media to the consumer's enjoyment. The customer flow process ensures a wide range of aspects that the customer encounters: arrival, stay at the store and in the post-paid areas, as well as customer service. These are three important places for the customer and thus for companies and brands. Every company has different goals; not all help customer flow want to increase sales.</p> <h3>Customer Flow Optimization Benefits</h3> <ul><li><strong>Improved the shopping experience in the store</strong></li> <li><strong>Optimized staff efficiency (quantity, shifts)</strong></li> <li><strong>Increased sales</strong></li> </ul><p> </p> <p>Product promotion will be most successful in areas with high store traffic. For example, placing a valuable item on busy locations and more in demand at less frequented store locations at the back of the store. That will guide the customer to go through the entire store.</p> <p> </p> <p>Department store layout means how it is loaded with the sales area and where the goods are located within it. A department store affects the customer's buying behaviour and, if the sales area is adequately organized, it helps to prosper. Customer flow records the number of customers, their buying behaviour and habits.</p> <p> </p> <p>If we find the customer's real needs, we can adjust accordingly to the layout of the store, department, or issue of the goods. Detailed analysis of the current situation - namely the current state of customer flow, the position of the entrance, the exit, the waiting room, the reception, the main sales area, how the goods are exposed (price tags, positions). New designs are not just about what they look like, but how they are designed for a natural shopping trip. The customer remembers not only how the shop looks, but we also learned that they primarily remember how they felt in the shop. When the brain adapts to the pattern of business, its sense of simplicity is disrupted by the new arrangement, when something appears in the store that does not correspond to the overall environment, it requires energy and extra resources for the human brain.</p> <p> </p> <p>Customers need a moment to navigate and adjust to the store environment, so it is not advisable to display all promotional information right at the entrance (for example, the current action goods), instead it is essential to focus on appropriate customer navigation, the larger the department store, the more emphasis just on orientation.</p> <p> </p> <p>For example, where does one place action goods or products? The direction of traffic at the store affects how successful promotional activities and product placement are. The traffic analysis of each department will show places that are more interesting and less visited or neglected (hot spot and cold spot are used for this). As the name suggests, products or information placed on hot spots tends to be more successful than those in places that do not have the same level of traffic.</p> <p> </p> <p>How can such information be used to improve the appearance of a department store and increase sales? The necessary information includes the following information, which I drew from practice from a position that affects the appearance of the department store. Most people use the right hand to write. When people enter the store, they are likely to turn right. Note that we often encounter a type of store that supports a counterclockwise path. As far as the aisle width is concerned, narrow aisles promote curiosity and impulsive purchasing, while more full shopping aisles promote calm transport of what destination. However, if many customers suddenly appear in the narrow aisle, the journey can become impassable, and the customer tends to leave the store as soon as possible. It is essential to find a balance that matches the available space.</p> <p> </p> <p>There are several ways in which a store can track its customer flow, for example, by using a sequence of frames at set intervals and recording changes that occur over time, using cameras, observing, or analyzing purchase data. Using these methods, we get information about the number of visitors, trendy areas and vice versa, as well as the different types of customer behaviour.</p> <p> </p> <p>In general, there are four types of store layout: lattice, loop, tree, and free layout. The grid layout has counters and shelves in long rows all over the store, forcing shoppers to go up and down different aisles. This arrangement is typical for grocery stores. The loop has one main shopping route that leads the customer through one main route; the customer returns to the entrance with the loop. The layout of the tree has one central aisle that runs from the front of the store to the rear with individual compartments on the sides. Freely distributed stores are ideal for smaller businesses and impulse purchases. The goods are loosely grouped around the store. The focus is on the open air and letting the customer navigate between seemingly randomly placed products, although every detail is still carefully planned.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Neuromarketing Thesis Conclusion</h2> <p>Much has been said about marketing, while neuromarketing is still considered to be a new industry perspective dealing with customer needs and needs. This type of market research activity, which draws on scientific knowledge such as neurology and psychology, helps brands, create new designs, pricing mechanisms, product sales in the shop, website presentation services, television and print advertising, and other forms of brand promotion. Consumers create individual associations and expectations with the brand. Neuromarketing focuses on this.</p> <p> </p> <p>One significant finding of the theoretical part of this bachelor thesis is the finding of Harvard professor of psychology Timothy Wilson (2002) that 99.9% of the information is processed subconsciously from all the stimuli that affect us. Together with information on the development of the brain, knowledge of psychology about unconsciously or consciously processed emotions and feelings when shopping and introducing into neurological research technologies, the content of the theoretical part of this work.</p> <p> </p> <p>The practical part of this work is devoted to the analysis of a department store, which serves as a commercial tool for sales management. This part describes the observation of the shopping behaviour of customers, a sample of customers divided into three groups (individual, couple, family) over the course of fourteen days. The observation provided valuable information about which entrances of the department store are most used or whether abbreviations are used in the store. The separately examined fact was how strategically placed products act on customers. The key findings were that families spent the most time in the department store on the first floor of the store. On the ground floor of the department store, couples bought the longest. Also, on the ground floor of the department store, the observation was the most often visited floor, and the traffic analysis demonstrated interest related to specific products.</p> <p> </p> <p>The last part of this thesis is a separate supplement - a leaflet called 'neuro-map', which shows essential information about neuromarketing and summarizes key information from this bachelor thesis, unfortunately, it is proprietary and cannot be shared.</p> <p> </p> <p>To conclude, neuromarketing has the potential to be an increasingly used method of marketing communication in the future, thanks to its collaboration with neuroscience and advanced technologies that are continually evolving, and together they have the prerequisite to bring more quality information.</p> <div> </div> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/neuromarketing-brain-research-methods" data-a2a-title="NEUROMARKETING BRAIN RESEARCH METHODS &amp; ETHICS"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Fneuromarketing-brain-research-methods&amp;title=NEUROMARKETING%20BRAIN%20RESEARCH%20METHODS%20%26%20ETHICS"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span><div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <h3 class="field__label">Tags</h3> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Academic</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/neuromarketing" hreflang="en">Neuromarketing</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Sun, 09 Jun 2019 15:08:19 +0000 Josephine Gilmour 590 at https://prettygoodpost.org DISCUSSING ZEN BUDDHISM AND THE TRUTH ABOUT THE FOURTH CORRIDOR https://prettygoodpost.org/truth-fourth-corridor <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">DISCUSSING ZEN BUDDHISM AND THE TRUTH ABOUT THE FOURTH CORRIDOR</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/josephine-gilmour" lang="" about="/josephine-gilmour" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">Josephine Gilmour</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 05/29/2019 - 15:26</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-mt-subheader-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div>Return to part 2 <a href="https://prettygoodpost.org/four-noble-truths-buddhism">DISCUSSING THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS OF BUDDHISM</a></div> <p> </p> <h2>Wisdom Of Zen Buddhism</h2> <p>Zen Buddhism develops Buddha's teachings by union with the Hindu world concept and is the result of the spiritual experiences of the three great Asian cultures: India, China, and Japan.  It teaches that the basic reality of life can be discovered, if we do not adhere to its phenomenon forms, and Taoist knowledge that we come to the harmony of life with the Tao by giving up this ways of life, letting it go and freeing it to be itself. </p> <p> </p> <p>Zen has the same goal as Buddhism, i.e. enlightenment, but called 'Satori'.  Satori is said to be impossible to describe, it is vital to be aware and learn the true meaning of it.</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/FA1B69F2-7306-43A8-BE7E-3254B6D3E9DC.jpeg" width="1280" height="854" alt="Zen Buddhism Fourth Corridor" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Zen Buddhism - Satori</h2> <p>Zen is focused solely on the attainment of Satori, and all the exercises, meditation, and efforts are directed toward it.  The philosophy is not supported by dogmas, it emphasises personal experience and enjoyment. The gateway to Zen is the presence here and now in every moment, by keeping the attention and exercising conscious being, i.e. awareness without thinking.  Zen masters call this state of mindlessness and total conscious presence.</p> <p> </p> <p>However, according to Zen, Satori is also very difficult to express verbally, but to illustrate what Zen is and what it is, Zen masters and monks used stories or puzzles.  Just as we read between the lines of fables, we can try to do it with Zen stories.  The wisdom of Zen masters has no meaning in trying to grasp with your mind, but the flashes of "understanding" that appear in ones mind while reading these stories giving the pointers leading us closer to our nature.</p> <p>"You won't understand it until you found it" "Here, man sees the true nature of the world." "Unity of the Universe and oneself. Consistency." --Zen Quotes</p> <p> </p> <p>So how is Zen practiced?  Above all, meditation and student-teacher conversations.  Zen has many ways of exercising.  The practice of "Zazen" is a practice of abandoning thoughts, spirit, body, and form dependencies.  Another exercise is the so-called "Kóan", or puzzle, with the aim of putting reason in the trap and thus destroying it.  The "abandonment" of reason comes the true essence, the solution, and often Satori.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Fourth Corridor Buddhism Values" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="5155c489-8534-4754-97c8-7d184f071bcf" height="534" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/42CC58B5-3AFF-437A-9E53-8BD57F90B405.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <h2>The Truth About The Fourth Corridor</h2> <p>The following story illustrates the cycle of life and human suffering.  It is the difference between man and animal.  When we put a rat in a maze of four corridors and give her cheese in the fourth corridor, the rat learns to walk only into the fourth corridor to get to the cheese.  At this point, a human with a rat is comparable. The difference is that we place the cheese in another corridor.  "Now the Great God of Life will, after some time, move the cheese to another corridor." The rat will return to the fourth corridor for a while, then wander through all the corridors and search for the cheese.  This brings us to the difference between rat and man.  Not only will a man goes to the fourth corridor, but he will not move.  He would be convinced of the fourth corridor of the one in which the cheese was supposed to be, and his stance would be firm.</p> <p> </p> <p>Rats are interested in cheese while people create a belief about the fourth corridor and hold on it.  There is frustration when the cheese is not in the fourth corridor.  It is a mystery why the truth about the fourth corridor is stronger than our happiness (in this case finding cheese).  The need to prove the truth that cheese in the fourth corridor must be is a confirmation of why we are unhappy in the long run.  We never get cheese when we look for it where it has always been, because everything is transient and life is constantly moving.  Are we looking for cheese still in the fourth corridor, because it's so easy?  I always remember a story about an alchemist, who has gone a long way to find a treasure, only to discover at the end that the treasure was at home and at the same time in his heart.  Despite this, he had to make the journey so that he could appreciate the treasure and come to life.  Nor can we be happy when we seek happiness.  Even satori / happiness / enlightenment can never be noticed just because of the idea or belief where happiness might be. And idea can basically destroy the experience.  So if someone could meet God, don't try to meet him again. God Passes Around.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Fourth Corridor Rat" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="12c0b381-acb6-488a-9656-118fa893f761" height="451" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/2FFC25FF-7797-4218-AF14-73B54E9AF53D.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p>There is a way out of the four corridors, and Buddhism points to its direction and, above all, how to be free.  Buddhism answers questions extensively;  "What is man?"  What is his purpose in life? "" And what is right in life? "What can we do to be happy?  I think, perhaps just to be my own Buddha, ie.  not to adhere to material, emotion, to be controlled by your illusory self and to be present in every single moment.  The chance to start living is here and now and is always exactly the same for everyone.</p> <p> </p> <p>At the end of his life, Buddha expresses satisfaction.  Also from his sentence radiates peace and tranquility, likewise I imagine the meaning of life: "I can die happy, I have not left one grain of learning in the palm of my hand.  In a world of learning that is close to many cultures that have embraced Buddhism as their main religion, Buddha's knowledge is timeless and every culture can find its own way in them, but the essence remains the same.</p> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Fourth Corridor Buddha" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="e4436c3b-808f-4918-847c-4c22c1def8fc" height="427" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/57E1C387-BB7F-4302-BBC5-0938DED2736A.jpeg" width="640" /></p> <p> </p> <h2>Used Literature</h2> <p>ALDINGER, Marco - Bewusstseinserheiterung</p> <p>BSTAN-'DZIN-RGYA-MTSHO - Four Noble Truths</p> <p>TOLLE, Eckhart - The Power Of Now</p> <p>NYDAHL, Ole - The Way Things Are: A Living Approach to Buddhism </p> <p>BONDY, Egon. - Buddha</p> <p> </p> <h2>References</h2> <p>Buddhismus | karma, meditace: Ochraňuj Dharmu, a Dharma ochrání Tebe. KARMA DENDRUB DORDŽE. Buddhismus | karma, meditace: Ochraňuj Dharmu, a Dharma ochrání Tebe - Available at: http://www.buddhismus.cz</p> <p>SUMÉDHÓ, Adžán a Jakub BARTOVSKÝ. Čtyři ušlechtilé pravdy. In: SUMÉDHÓ, Adžán a Jakub BARTOVSKÝ. Buddha.cz [online]. Available at: <a href="http://www.buddha.cz/buddhamangala/ctyri_uslechtile_pravdy.pdf">http://www.buddha.cz/buddhamangala/ctyri_uslechtile_pravdy.pdf</a></p> <p> </p> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/truth-fourth-corridor" data-a2a-title="DISCUSSING ZEN BUDDHISM AND THE TRUTH ABOUT THE FOURTH CORRIDOR"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Ftruth-fourth-corridor&amp;title=DISCUSSING%20ZEN%20BUDDHISM%20AND%20THE%20TRUTH%20ABOUT%20THE%20FOURTH%20CORRIDOR"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span><div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <h3 class="field__label">Tags</h3> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Academic</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/philosophy" hreflang="en">Philosophy</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Wed, 29 May 2019 19:26:57 +0000 Josephine Gilmour 585 at https://prettygoodpost.org DISCUSSING THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS OF BUDDHISM https://prettygoodpost.org/four-noble-truths-buddhism <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">DISCUSSING THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS OF BUDDHISM</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/josephine-gilmour" lang="" about="/josephine-gilmour" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="" class="username">Josephine Gilmour</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 05/29/2019 - 11:51</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-mt-subheader-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div>Return to part 1 <a href="https://prettygoodpost.org/wisdom-buddhism-enlightenment">DISCUSSING THE WISDOM OF BUDDHISM AND ENLIGHTENMENT</a></div> <h2> </h2> <h2>The Four Noble Truths - Foundation</h2> <p>The Four Noble Truths are the very foundation of the Buddha's teaching.  The Dalai Lama describes them as the original knowledge that Buddha spoke after he attained enlightenment, and emphasises their importance.  Dalai Lama divided the Four Noble Truths into his first ever lecture in the West (June 1996 in London):</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/4CF96266-8D3E-49D6-ACF2-9032C2513D8A.jpeg" width="639" height="454" alt="Four Noble Truths of Buddhism" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2> 1. Dukkha - Noble Truth About Presence Of Suffering</h2> <p>The unruly mind puts a person into suffering (samsara).  The opposite - that is, the disciplined and balanced mind is in the state of supreme reconciliation (nirvana).  In Four Noble Truths teachings Buddhism recognises three domains of existence: the domain of desire, the domain of form, and the domain without form.  If existence is linked to desire and sensory perception, thus controlled by dependence on physical objects, its path leads to being falls under the domain of desire.  On the side of existence, being attached to the inner emotional state and feelings is still dependent on a certain form of suffering, even if their consciousness is deepened.</p> <p> </p> <h3> Three Types Of Suffering</h3> <p> The Buddha distinguishes three kinds of sufferings, these are:</p> <ul><li>Painful experiences, including unsatisfied desires.</li> <li>Suffering caused by constant change</li> <li>Dissatisfaction from a lack of enlightenment. </li> </ul><p>In the cycle of birth, we find ourselves in a stage between birth and death, where illness and ageing are constantly emerging. </p> <p> </p> <img alt="Four Noble Truths" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="a46f1561-3225-4fb9-ad3a-d5217b232cbf" height="360" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/AC397D51-0F55-4630-AC5D-001698424E93.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p>The suffering caused by constant change can also bring experiences that we consider to be pleasant.  But Buddhism claims that even pleasant experiences are ultimately a source of sorrow and suffering.  That's because the experiences are only pleasant allowing for the comparison with the painful experiences.  In the short term, one may feel wonderful, but if one is still in the birth-death cycle, sooner or later the same "pleasant" situations are no longer satisfying which brings  frustration and suffering, because of lack of acceptance of transient nature of universe. </p> <p> </p> <p>Dissatisfaction from a lack of enlightenment flows from deep ignorance and unenlightened existence and forms with accumulating suffering. From the disappointment it transpires that one samsara cause another to follow.  Why are things as they are? Buddha teaches that unless as one does not realise the true nature of things, suffering will always come and an in existence subjected own ignorance by a lack of awareness and realisation, permanent happiness cannot be achieved. </p> <p> </p> <h2> 2. Noble Truth About The Origin And Cause Of Suffering</h2> <p>Ignorance is not the only cause of human suffering and unenlightened existence.  It is an extensive set of disturbing emotions and thoughts. Depressing emotions can cause a negative impact on our minds despite a short period of action. Buddha says that the cause of pain and suffering is a lust or desire, and that if we want to get rid of pain, we must cut through the bonds of desire. People were dissatisfied at the time of Buddha, but long before.  Buddha taught that our continual lust and desire is the root cause of our discontent.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Four Noble Truths Lucifer Desire" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d555ffdf-113d-4454-a5d6-257a25843338" height="360" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/DECA9CA8-487D-48C1-8727-F09B5F22DEAA.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p>A Buddhist monk once said, "I can summarise everything I have learned in twenty years in a monastery with one sentence: Everything that arises also disappears. I know it. According to Eckhart Tolle, the monk meant in fact this: I learned to accept all that is;  so I found my inner peace."</p> <p> </p> <h2>3. Noble Truth About The End Of Suffering - Nirvana</h2> <p> </p> <p>Suffering can be ended by the eliminating lust and desire. Suffering ends if we completely abandon both. The main idea of ​​the Third Noble Truth is to forgo all misery and illusion.  It is important to keep an open mind, to observe suffering and through consciousness to be consciously detached.  The Buddha had often stressed: This truth is to be accomplished now and here." We do not have to wait until our death to see if it is all true - this teaching is for all living human beings. Each of us must do it ourselves.  I can tell you about it and encourage you, but I can't do it for you!  He says that his words are only pointers to awakening, all our efforts are ours.</p> <p> </p> <h2>4. Noble Truth About The Journey - Noble Eightfold Path</h2> <p>The Buddha in the Noble Eightfold Path summarises the path to enlightenment. The path includes right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right meditation.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Four Noble Truths" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="3f9246df-12e6-42b2-82ec-175d4894d248" height="423" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/57669C05-4E0D-466D-B341-6E549688C0CA.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p>The path may lead to the entry into the stream, that is, the path of some liberation from suffering.  An individual who returns only once needs only one human life to free himself from suffering.  The last option is the state of the liberated, Arahata.</p> <p> </p> <p>Arahat is the one who will carry out enlightenment in this life.  Those who wanted to become an Arahat had to give up all property and relationships (accepting the status of a monk) and those who had finished suffering in their earthly life had reached the "clean lands" of "nirvana" after the earthly death.  Buddha teaches that the first truth should be understood, the second abandoned, the third realised and the fourth developed.</p> <p> </p> <h2>What Is Space?</h2> <p>Form is emptiness, emptiness is a form, as found in Buddhist collections of sacred script called Sutras.  The essence of everything is emptiness.  Buddhists, and many others are aware that  nothing can exist without empty space, just as sound cannot exist without silence.  Every matter, including the material body, is nearly a hundred percent emptiness - so great are the distances between atoms.</p> <img alt="Four Noble Truths - Eckhart Tolle Quote" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="794bcf5d-e4a7-49ed-9504-0df16a3918f0" height="640" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/5581B7F5-6E55-423E-83E7-B6996F2359A5.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><h2> </h2> <h2>Diversity Of Buddha's Teachings</h2> <p>As a result of the wide spread of Buddha's teachings throughout Asia and its popularity over the years, his knowledge has been enriched by specific cultural differences and characteristics.  With current knowledge, we can diversify the directions of Buddha's teaching as such:</p> <p> </p> <p>The earliest school of Buddha's teaching is called Theravada ("Teachings Of The Elders").  This school of Buddhism common to Thailand, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.  The basis of the Theravada teaching is the so-called Pali Canon in Buddha's discussions.  Second school of Buddhism is Hinayana, aimed at protecting beings from all negative, drawing on a great deal of the Four Noble Truths.  Hinayan is further divided into the divisions of the Shrajak and Prajteka Buddhas.  The third school of Buddhism is Mahayana.  It focuses on the so-called boddhisatva, a person who is in the same state of mind as the Buddha before enlightenment, probably at the time one decides to go on the path of knowledge.  In Mahayana, the levels of advancement of a human in enlightenment are described.  The Mahayana School is currently found in China, Japan, Korea or Vietnam.  It is sometimes said that Zen Buddhism is also ranked amongst Mahayana, but Zen is equally often considered a separate school.  Vajrayana, considers itself to be the most advanced and most effective Buddha's teaching.  It combines previous school knowledge and adds a practice of learning in which mantra recitations are important, a series of syllables, support sound vibration, help calm the mind.  Vajrayana is divided into inner tantras and outer tantras.  It is associated with Tibet, today it is also located in Mongolia, Nepal, China, Japan.  It has spread rapidly in the West, mainly in the US and Europe.</p> <p class="text-align-right">Continue to part 3 - <a href="https://prettygoodpost.org/truth-fourth-corridor">DISCUSSING ZEN BUDDHISM AND THE TRUTH ABOUT THE FOURTH CORRIDOR</a></p> <p> </p> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/four-noble-truths-buddhism" data-a2a-title="DISCUSSING THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS OF BUDDHISM"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Ffour-noble-truths-buddhism&amp;title=DISCUSSING%20THE%20FOUR%20NOBLE%20TRUTHS%20OF%20BUDDHISM"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span><div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <h3 class="field__label">Tags</h3> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Academic</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/philosophy" hreflang="en">Philosophy</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Wed, 29 May 2019 15:51:00 +0000 Josephine Gilmour 584 at https://prettygoodpost.org MENTAL HEALTH - THEORIES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING - PART 2 https://prettygoodpost.org/theories-learning-constructivist-theory <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">MENTAL HEALTH - THEORIES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING - PART 2</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 05/18/2019 - 08:03</span> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/F50F411A-1162-4ABD-9689-948ECECAAD99.jpeg" width="1280" height="782" alt="Constructivist Theory" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><div><a href="https://prettygoodpost.org/theories-of-learning">Return to part 1 - Theories of Learning</a></div> <h2>Theories Of Learning And Teaching - Constructivist Theory</h2> <p>The evidence used to support the chosen Constructivist Theory will be from a reflective standpoint, because this has allowed the opportunity to observe each other within a group setting, both for testing/pitching ideas as well as to develop these ideas into clear workable strategies that fits the individual student’s learning style.</p> <p> </p> <p>This approach essentially allows the teacher/instructor to observe group dynamics with very minimum input. Often only serving as a reminder of what the original instruction was thereby giving total control to the learners to reason through and to some extent, decipher the instruction on one’s own terms of understanding, a strategy which Reece et al (2007, page 85) has cited Dewey to be the process of thought. This process also guides Dewey’s definition of learning, which has been explicated documented as “learning to think.” Further citation by Reece et al, extends Dewey’s theory by adding that “learning is not just doing something, such as a task, but to also reflect and learn from this.’9 This argument is relevant to the experience of administering a depot injection, because the first practical experience of this task was one that was crippled by nerves and fear of making an error. However it was the opportunity to reflect on ‘what went wrong or right for that matter that would serve as the podium for cognitivists to apply the first and third parts of their three basic assumptions that guide this theory. “The first is that learning is manifested by a change in behaviour (how things are done,) and the third is based on the principle of contiguity and reinforcement, (a consideration of how human memory works to promote learning)” Reece et al (2007, page 86.) In the experiences outlined above, frequent practice played an integral role in knowledge development.</p> <p> </p> <p>Unless there was a learning opportunity there could have been no incidence of a memory reflex, since knowledge was never acquired. Again from a Cognitivists standpoint, this “focuses on how students gain and organise their knowledge,” (Reece et a1 (2007, page 85,) learning about themselves, what works best for them by way of repeating the task until a clear understanding of one’s own strengths and weaknesses have been achieved. Within a group setting, proof of how individuals learn differently, is often evidenced by group dynamics and the benefits of being present to observe the interaction between other students and the teacher. On an occasional like this the students within the group realise that may need to “modify or abandon previous ideas before they can develop or construct new meaning,” (Reece et al 2007, page 89,) from new information. This however is against the learning principles of the Constructivist theory which is grounded in the premise that students “construct their own knowledge by testing ideas and approaches based on prior knowledge and experiences and then apply these to a new situation." One which would “integrate the new knowledge gained, with pre-existing intellectual constructs.” (www.curriculum.calstatela.edu/faculty/constructivist.) </p> <p>The principles of this theory were observed to be true even during the first session. Students were asked to reflect on their experiences with the administration of injections. This of course was within the context of being a patient, but did not however limit the observations of the procedure since most of the students involved made reference to the preparation of the site, the withdrawal of the plunger and the z-tracking technique; a term that was admittedly unfamiliar to the students prior to this session. Embedded in this scenario was one of the key guidelines used to support the constructivist’s theoretical approach to teaching and learning. The guidelines states that "the traditional role of the teacher shifts from the ‘sage on the stage,’ (the transmitter of knowledge,) to ‘guide on the side,’ (the facilitator of pre-existing knowledge.)</p> <p> </p> <p>In this instance, the facilitator or the silent teacher if-you-like; leaves room for learners to evaluate how they learn by actively reflecting on what works for them, thus accommodating, especially in a group setting, different learning styles and if necessary adapting to one which allows for the greater overall benefit. At the International Committee of Museum Educators October 1991, Professor George E Hein of Lesley College Massachusetts USA, said in a conference that “Constructing is learning,” and in fact “there is no other kind.” His argument encourages his colleague’s propositions that “there is no knowledge independent of the meaning attributed to experience by the learner or community of learners,” (www.aln.org) (This has been accepted to include small mentored groups, as is the case in this essay.) To accept this position on learning is to accept other concepts of this same theory previously presented by the likes of Piaget and Dewey as well as others. These two theorists strongly argued; from both a psychological and educational view point that “a child constructs understanding through many channels: reading, listening, exploring and experiencing his or her environment” (www.learning.media.mit.edu), and it is these arguments that have supported the researched evidence that learning theories inform knowledge development.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Constructivist Theory - Conclusion</h2> <p>Upon reflection, it would appear that no one learning theory can inform a single episode of teaching. These theories do build platforms for situational learning, however due to their individual definition; they cannot singularly be credited as a main structural framework for which knowledge is development. While doing research to develop this paper, it became apparent that unless all students involved shared the same learning preference, there would be some challenge in keeping with a rigid theory. Also not every student is aware of what his learning style is, for this Honey and Mumford , (as cited in class handouts,) developed the H&amp;M Learning Styles Questionnaire which can be assumed to essentially be a guide to allow individual’s to recognise his own “learning habits,” and develop his own knowledge based on those habits or preferences. The principle of these ‘learning habits,’ was founded in arguments presented by Kolb. He was cited to say that “knowing a person’s (and your own) learning style enables learning to be orientated according to the preferred method.” He went on to say that “ideally the process represents a learning cycle or spiral where the learner touches all bases.” These bases have been noted to be the ‘cycle of experiencing.’ They are, according to Kolb, reflecting, thinking and acting. Kolb argued in the same text that, “immediate or concrete experiences lead to observations and reflections.” These reflections, he continued, “are then translated into abstract concepts with the implications for action, which the person can actively test and experiment with. It gradually became evident that the implications of such a learning strategy could structurally inform the role of a future nursing registrant since the performance of a nurse is grounded in the practice of reflection. This reflection has been recognised to be the key aide for professional development. Being able to recognise one’s learning strategy as it fits into a theory of learning ultimately acts as a dais for progressive learning within a professional setting. The information gathered in this paper also emphasised with evidence that learning does not happen outside of an established model, even if this is only observed in small measurements of the definitions which academically guide these theories.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Constructivist Theory" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="1558cda8-d64b-4820-8d35-11355f1a08e3" height="457" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/7845EFD8-DCCA-44C7-B41C-A5004AB24719.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <h2>References</h2> <p>In class hand outs Reece et al 2007</p> <p><a href="http://www.wikipedia.org.com">www.wikipedia.org.com</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.aln.org">www.aln.org</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.curriculum.calstatela.edu/faculty/constructivist">www.curriculum.calstatela.edu/faculty/constructivist</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.learning.media.mit.edu">www.learning.media.mit.edu</a></p> <p><a href="http://www.nurseminerva.co.uk">www.nurseminerva.co.uk</a></p> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/theories-learning-constructivist-theory" data-a2a-title="MENTAL HEALTH - THEORIES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING - PART 2"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Ftheories-learning-constructivist-theory&amp;title=MENTAL%20HEALTH%20-%20THEORIES%20OF%20LEARNING%20AND%20TEACHING%20-%20PART%202"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span><div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <h3 class="field__label">Tags</h3> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Academic</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/mental-health" hreflang="en">Mental Health</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Sat, 18 May 2019 12:03:04 +0000 Anonymous 580 at https://prettygoodpost.org MENTAL HEALTH - THEORIES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING - PART 1 https://prettygoodpost.org/theories-of-learning <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">MENTAL HEALTH - THEORIES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING - PART 1</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Sat, 05/18/2019 - 05:18</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-mt-subheader-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Theories Of Learning And Teaching In Practice - Introduction</h2> <p>This paper will aim to demonstrate how learning theories inform knowledge development within the discipline of mental health nursing. Hill (2002), as cited by Wikipedia.org explains a learning theory as “an attempt to describe how people and animals learn, thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning.” It was also noted in the same literature that “learning theories affords a platform from which vocabulary and a conceptual frameworks can be interpreted through the use of examples of learning that we have observed.”</p> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/F9D9196C-484B-4974-B6FF-B802EAED79BC.jpeg" width="1280" height="854" alt="Theories Of Learning" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Theories Of Learning And Teaching</h2> <p>The three main theories of learning and teaching have been identified as Behaviourism, Cognitive and Constructivism and although the constructivism theory will be the main one used as the platform for this paper, elements of both the behaviourism and the cognitive theories will also be referenced to support the main argument.</p> <p> </p> <p>This argument will be directly related to the theory of constructivism, since it accommodates the reasoning that “learning is based on the student’s active involvement and participation in problem solving and critical thinking regarding a learning activity,” and by extension defines constructivism as “an educational philosophy which holds that learners ultimately construct their own knowledge that then resides in them, so that each person’s knowledge is as unique as they are.” (www.aln.org) This is despite the fact that individual knowledge and reasoning can be acquired by students even within a singular learning episode.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Episode of Learning And Teaching</h2> <p>This episode of learning was based on the techniques used for intra muscular (IM) depot injections. This experience was garnered during a placement within the community, and in an environment that was also shared with two other students, and involved several sessions.</p> <p> </p> <p>The initial session provided an opportunity the all students involved to learn the clinical reasons behind the administration of depot injects; this included the popular routes, the muscles involved, with specific reference to the “trust proposed sites of choice: the dorsogluteal and the ventrogluteal.” (www.nursingtimes.net.) The discussion also included the methods used and who has the authority to carry out the administration; these were confirmed to be medical staff and Nurses who have completed training and registered with the ’Nurses and Wives Council. This session touched briefly on techniques, leaving room for questions to be asked of the mentor however a promise was made that the second session would allow greater opportunities to explore the many techniques of the (IM) injections. This first session ended with a directive for students to read more on what has been presented in order to achieve clarity where there was doubt as well as build on what was taught within limited time. This directive was taken on board, and the students decided to work together, this provided an academic support system where students could bounce ideas off each other through their own life/clinical experiences.</p> <p> </p> <p>As promised the second session delved deeper into the techniques/skills needed to successfully administer an injection. These ranged from: reading prescription charts, needle size-as it relates to body weight or medication, skin preparation, Z tracking and the withdrawal of the plunger of the syringe prior to administering an intramuscular injection, also taking into account, tissue depth, needle selection and the position of the patient. Literature was handed out during this session to encourage further reading. Reasons were given to support the circumstances under which it would be justifiably necessary to deviate from proposed sites, and where or how this information should be documented in the nursing notes. As this session was on pre—booked depot clinic day, the opportunity was granted for the students to observe a depot being administered by a trained staff to a patient, therefore allowing a ‘real’ experience of how the techniques are employed to the scenario. This second session ended with a directive that the students should practice what they had observed on oranges to get familiar with the techniques. It was also advised that students should explore the practice in such a way that would enable them to identify what feels most comfortable for them when filling the syringe and administering the drug, since no specific way of holding the needle has been identified. During this session, emphasis was placed on being a safe nurse, (ie) wearing gloves, checking the dates on the medication and in fact, checking that the medication corresponds with the drug chart.</p> <p> </p> <p>The third session was one where the students got an opportunity to practice on a patient, so in this case they were there ones who would be observed, to assess if they had adopted the skills previously observed. It was understood that students could ask questions if they were unsure about anything as a way of ensuring safe practice. The strategy was also one which insisted that unless there was something obviously unsafe in the practice, no interruptions would be made during administration, and that all reflections would take place after the patient had left the room.</p> <p> </p> <p>The extent of the teacher student observation covered the entire process, from hand washing to disposing of the used syringes and gloves. Again, this was done both to assess safety and to assess how much of what had been taught from the student teacher sessions had actually been retained.</p> <p> </p> <p>During further sessions, which ran with a frequency of at least two times a week, for a period of six weeks, continued opportunities for supervised administration of depot injections were allowed. Administration skills assessment was continually carried out and it was constant improvement of these skills by students which served as evidence of the effectiveness of this approach/theory of learning and teaching.</p> <p> </p> <p><img alt="Theories of Learning" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="46d89362-7841-4c3b-b847-eb6bb91ac575" height="360" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/86F00AE6-08DF-4395-A870-3A56650B8220.jpeg" width="640" /></p> <p> </p> <p class="text-align-right"><a href="https://prettygoodpost.org/theories-learning-constructivist-theory">Continue to Part 2 - Constructivist Theory</a></p> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/theories-of-learning" data-a2a-title="MENTAL HEALTH - THEORIES OF LEARNING AND TEACHING - PART 1"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Ftheories-of-learning&amp;title=MENTAL%20HEALTH%20-%20THEORIES%20OF%20LEARNING%20AND%20TEACHING%20-%20PART%201"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span><div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <h3 class="field__label">Tags</h3> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Academic</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/mental-health" hreflang="en">Mental Health</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Sat, 18 May 2019 09:18:14 +0000 Anonymous 579 at https://prettygoodpost.org MENTAL HEALTH - LEARNING HOW TO COMMUNICATE BY SIGNING LANGUAGE https://prettygoodpost.org/communicate-signing-language <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">MENTAL HEALTH - LEARNING HOW TO COMMUNICATE BY SIGNING LANGUAGE</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span lang="" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">Anonymous (not verified)</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 05/15/2019 - 10:42</span> <div class="field field--name-field-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="images-container clearfix"> <div class="image-preview clearfix"> <div class="image-wrapper clearfix"> <div class="field__item"> <img src="/sites/default/files/BEEA6C54-A3A4-4F5A-AA63-9C35D843096F.jpeg" width="1024" height="683" alt="Signing Language Youth" typeof="foaf:Image" /> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Studying Signing Language</h2> <p>As part of my degree course, I committed to study how to communicate via signing language. I started by contacting a mentor, whom I had pre negotiated with, to help me throughout this period. My mentor is a teacher in a learning disability school, at the riverside school in Orpington. I had previously met my mentor and her class as part of my placement in my first year. Hence, I had already familiarised myself with the school and some of the students. Also, whilst I was here before, I remember being so frustrated because I had very little means and ability to express and understand any signed communication. So I was looking forward to making a change or progress in my life and that of others in my class.</p> <p> </p> <p>My rationale for this decision was because; I wanted to learn something that was going to be useful to me throughout my career. Then it was only logical for me to learn and practise in an appropriate environment. </p> <p> </p> <p>My journey began with a visit to the school, where I meet with my mentor on a typical school day. I joined her and part-took in her lesson for half the day. I continued these visits for two weeks, going in twice a week. During her lessons; and besides helping around, I would observe how she communicated with her pupils and also learnt basic signing language vocabularies. I also learnt which signing language was used in Great Britain.</p> <p> </p> <p>At the end of these two weeks, the school closed for the Easter break. My mentor then advised me on how and where to continue doing some research and studies on signing language. She also provided me with materials and websites to help me with my studies, during the two weeks holidays.</p> <p> </p> <p>I found out, there were websites offering tuitions for free on learning singing language at various levels. As this was to become a self directed study period, I decided to learn how to sign simple things like names, days of the week, names of places, kinds of food etc. I was only interested in areas I knew will be useful for me in the classroom and also baring in mind vocabularies I expected to be used in everyday life.</p> <p> </p> <p>This website, did not offer exams as I had originally planned to test myself. But I knew, after the holiday, I would be going back to the school, where I had to start signing. Upon return, I did not want to be only an observer but also to engage myself with very little barriers. </p> <p> </p> <p>I spent any spare time I had, looking through the website. They had pictures and demonstrations of how to sign. Totally, I took 90 hours of self directed studies which I spent two hours daily studying from this website and sometimes, watch programmes on channel four, which had someone translating via signing language. I also spent 19 hours at the school, which was three hours twice a week.</p> <p> </p> <p>After the holiday, I went back to the school (spending two hours, twice a week), and practice signing language. I felt accomplished when I got some positive feedbacks from my tutor who was very impressed.</p> <p> </p> <p>To account for other activities I did throughout this period, I have listed relevant events which I consider as being part of my academic achievements and as part of the transition. I attended training sessions at the university, for resuscitation and moving and handling. I was also called by the school office to rectify my practice assessment document. This involved returning to various placement areas to have my documentations corrected. I also attended a school meeting as a student representative for my cohort.</p> <p> </p> <img alt="Signing Language Kids Vector" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="8db4e966-053a-4ce1-a94e-7337739475e7" height="498" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/9C0048C2-0DE8-4402-9FA3-8F9DCD2D7C4B.jpeg" width="640" class="align-center" /><p> </p> <p class="text-align-right"><a href="https://prettygoodpost.org/user/235">Read more articles...</a></p> </div> <span class="a2a_kit a2a_kit_size_48 addtoany_list" data-a2a-url="https://prettygoodpost.org/communicate-signing-language" data-a2a-title="MENTAL HEALTH - LEARNING HOW TO COMMUNICATE BY SIGNING LANGUAGE"><a class="a2a_dd addtoany_share" href="https://www.addtoany.com/share#url=https%3A%2F%2Fprettygoodpost.org%2Fcommunicate-signing-language&amp;title=MENTAL%20HEALTH%20-%20LEARNING%20HOW%20TO%20COMMUNICATE%20BY%20SIGNING%20LANGUAGE"></a><a class="a2a_button_pinterest"></a><a class="a2a_button_twitter"></a><a class="a2a_button_whatsapp"></a><a class="a2a_button_tumblr"></a><a class="a2a_button_reddit"></a><a class="a2a_button_telegram"></a><a class="a2a_button_pocket"></a><a class="a2a_button_email"></a><br/></span><div class="field field--name-field-tags field--type-entity-reference field--label-above field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <h3 class="field__label">Tags</h3> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/taxonomy/term/54" hreflang="en">Academic</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-space field--type-text field--label-visually_hidden"> <div class="field__label visually-hidden">Space</div> <div class="field__item"><p> <br /></p> </div> </div> <section class="field field--name-comment field--type-comment field--label-above comment-wrapper"> </section> <div class="field field--name-field-mt-post-categories field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden field--entity-reference-target-type-taxonomy-term clearfix"> <ul class='links field__items'> <li><a href="/mental-health" hreflang="en">Mental Health</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-star field--type-starrating field--label-above"> <div class="field__label">Voted</div> <div class="field__item"><div class='starrating'> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s1'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s2'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s3'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s4'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s5'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s6'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s7'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s8'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on even s9'></div> <div class='rate-image star1-on odd s10'></div> </div> </div> </div> Wed, 15 May 2019 14:42:11 +0000 Anonymous 577 at https://prettygoodpost.org